• Amit BhaduriEmail author
Part of the Springer Series in Materials Science book series (SSMATERIALS, volume 264)


Classification of hardness measurement and precautions to avoid erratic measurement. Measurement of hardness with Mohsscale, file test and Herbert pendulum. Brinell hardness: principle, method with loading period and derivation of expression showing hardness. Indenters and loads for standard and non-standard tests. Condition to obtain a constant hardness for the same material. Advantages and disadvantages. Meyer hardness: definition, expression and its load sensitivity. Meyer’s law and condition to obtain the same hardness. Rockwell hardness: principle, loads, indenters, direct-reading hardness dial, hardness scale, method of testing, expression showing hardness, and advantages. Rockwell superficial hardness: principle and expression showing hardness, hardness scale, merits and demerits. Vickers hardness: principle, indenters and loads, derivation of expression showing hardness, operational method, and minimum test piece thickness. Advantages and disadvantages, and comparison with Brinell hardness. Microhardness (Knoop hardness): principle and derivation of expression showing hardness, penetrators and loads, advantages and disadvantages. Monotron hardness: principle and expression, indenters and hardness scales, advantages and disadvantages. Shore scleroscope: principle, mass effect of test piece and advantages. Poldi impact hardness: principle and expression, determination of Brinell hardness with supplied table, advantages and disadvantages. Nanohardness: indenters, derivation of expression showing hardness with Berkovich indenter, determination of contact depth of penetration, correction for machine compliance, correction due to imperfect geometry of indenter tip, and errors due to pile-up. Consideration of Martens hardness. Relationship to flow curve and prediction of tensile properties. Problems and solutions.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology KharagpurKharagpurIndia

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