• Amit BhaduriEmail author
Part of the Springer Series in Materials Science book series (SSMATERIALS, volume 264)


Classification of forging processes and different types of forging operations. Forging equipments, describing gravity drop hammer, power drop or steam hammer, mechanical forging press and hydraulic forging press. Open-die forging, coefficient of spread and its relation with bite ratio, ‘spread law’ with definitions of spread ratio and squeeze ratio. Closed-die forging or impression-die forging with discussion on some die design factors, such as flash and flash land ratio, draft angles, corner and fillet radii and location of parting line. Material loss due to scale formation, discard, croppings, slug waste, during forging. Plane strain forging of uniformly thick rectangular plate: distributions of pressure and longitudinal stress, average pressure and total load under conditions of Coulomb sliding friction, sticking friction and mixed stickingsliding friction. Plane strain forging of strip with inclined dies: die pressure and strip thickness at neutral plane and its location. Forging of flat circular disk: distributions of pressure and longitudinal stress, average pressure and total load under conditions of Coulomb sliding friction, sticking friction and mixed stickingsliding friction. Forging of circular disk by conical pointed dies: die pressure and condition for complete elimination of barrelling of the work-piece. Forging defects and fibre structure. Problems and solutions.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology KharagpurKharagpurIndia

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