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A Succinct Review on Upgrading of Lignin-Derived Bio-oil Model Components

  • Anand Mohan Verma
  • Nanda Kishore
Chapter
Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)

Abstract

Increasing energy demand and depleting non-renewable energy resources have centred the researcher’s cognition to develop a sustainable technology that can exploit renewable energies. Renewable energies include solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy, hydropower, biomass but leaving a snag there that only biomass, as the renewable energy resource, could be the sustainable alternative for transportation fuels because it delivers sustainable carbon. Biomass comprises of three main units, i.e. cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. In the recent past, cellulose and hemicellulose have acquired much attention but, on the other hand, lignin scuffled to get proper consideration. However, earlier it has been used to produce a less effective heat and electricity by combustion. Currently, lignin is magnanimous amongst researchers because of its higher energy density, great source for phenolic fine chemicals, etc. Bio-oils derived from fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass comprise of more than 300 oxy-compounds which vitiate its quality in the form of low pH value, less stable, highly viscous, and low heating value for the application as transportation fuel. Therefore, it needs the proper upgradation technology to make it exploitable for transportation fuels. Here in this chapter, a succinct review is carried out for the lignin-derived bio-oil model compounds such as phenol, guaiacol, anisole, vanillin, and eugenol. Guaiacol component is one of the key components in phenolic fraction of bio-oil because its presence in bio-oil is often higher and, in addition, other higher molecular weight phenolic model compounds such as vanillin and eugenol reduce to guaiacol majorly. Furthermore, guaiacol component can successfully represent a higher fraction of lignin structure because of attachment of hydroxyl and methoxy groups in its molecular structure.

Keywords

Lignin Bio-oil Lignocellulosic biomass Kinetics Guaiacol Sustainable energy 

Abbreviations

PHE

Phenol

BEN

Benzene

CYHA

Cyclohexane

CYHN

Cyclohexanone

CYHL

Cyclohexanol

CYHD

Cyclohexan-2,4-dione

ANI

Anisole

o-Cr

o-cresol

m-Cr

m-cresol

p-Cr

p-cresol

TOL

Toluene

MXCYHA

Methoxycyclohexane

GUA

Guaiacol

CAT

Catechol

MXCYHL

2-methoxycyclohexanol

MCAT

Methylcatechol

SAL

Salicylaldehyde

MXCYHDL

6-methoxycyclohexa-1,5-dien-1-ol

CYHDN

Cyclohexan-1,2-dione

CYHDDL

Cyclohexa-2,6-dien-1,2-diol

CYPTN

Cyclopentanone

DHBZD

3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde

VAN

Vanillin

p-HBZD

4-hydroxybenzaldehyde

MXBZD

3-methoxybenzaldehyde

m-HBZD

3-hydroxybenzaldehyde

EUG

Eugenol

ALCAT

4-allylcatechol

ALPHE

4-allylphenol

PLPHE

4-propylphenol

PLBEN

Propylbenzene

PLGUA

4-propylguaiacol

PLCAT

4-propylcatechol

ALANI

3-allylanisole

ALPHE

3-allylphenol

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology GuwahatiGuwahatiIndia

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