Simultaneous Control of Oxides of Nitrogen and Soot in CRDI Diesel Engine Using Split Injection and Cool EGR Fueled with Waste Frying Oil Biodiesel and Its Blends

  • R. AnandEmail author
Part of the Energy, Environment, and Sustainability book series (ENENSU)


Air pollution is one of the major threats to human health and living organisms, and its control is a greater challenge due to rapid growth in population and industrialization. Diesel vehicle exhaust emissions soot and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) are the major causes of global warming, acid rain, and photochemical smog. Fuel quality improvement, low-temperature homogeneous combustions, and high turbulent combustions are the most important diesel engine emission control strategies to restrict the air pollution. Use of different gaseous fuels, CNG, LPG, hydrogen and renewable liquid fuel biodiesel, ethanol, etc., in diesel engine reduces the engine out emissions to a great extent. Common rail direct injection (CRDI) has several advantages compared to the conventional mechanical fuel injection system. The high-pressure injection enhances the air-fuel mixture to obtain the better thermal efficiency as well as lower emissions. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is one of the predominant methods for controlling the NO x emission in internal combustion engines. EGR with split injection strategy is one of the effective methods to decrease soot and NO x emissions simultaneously without much drop in engine efficiency.



American Society for Testing and Materials


20% biodiesel


40% biodiesel


60% biodiesel


80% biodiesel




Brake mean effective pressure (bar)


Brake specific energy consumption (MJ/kWh)


Brake specific fuel consumption (kg/kWh)


After top dead center


Before top dead center


Brake thermal efficiency (%)


Combustion duration (°CA)




Sodium methoxide


Carbon monoxide (% vol.)


Carbon dioxide (% vol.)


Common rail direct injection


Dwell period


Exhaust gas recirculation


Filter smoke number


Heat release rate (J/°CA)


Methyl ester


Nitric oxide (ppm)


Ignition delay (°CA)


Split injection


Start of injection


Start of combustion


Unburned hydrocarbon (ppm)


Waste frying oil


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringNational Institute of TechnologyTiruchirappalliIndia

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