An Overview of Current Knowledge Concerning the Environmental Consequences of the Nuclear Pollution: Sources, Effects and Control

  • S. K. VermaEmail author
  • S. L. Sinha
  • D. K. Chandraker
Part of the Energy, Environment, and Sustainability book series (ENENSU)


Nuclear power raises a number of fundamental environmental issues. The main problem is how to deal with the quantities of highly radioactive wastes which are produced from nuclear power plants. Discharges from nuclear power plant can cause substantial climatic contamination danger and hazard for individuals’ lives and well-being. In this chapter, different techniques for modelling and control of hazards have been presented. The modelling is in view of recreation and perception of spreading of air pollutants, estimation of the source term for atomic and compound fiascos, and the hazard appraisal of unsafe substances. This chapter will include the principle of modelling the nuclear and chemical disasters, optimal control of theoretical frame with example, various modelling techniques, challenges associated with measurement of pollutants, etc. Finally, solution and recommendation of good model will be presented. The inclusion of related references provides a starting point for the interested reader/researchers/industrialists.


Atmospheric pollution hazard Modelling Concentration Nuclear Chemical disaster 


  1. 1.
    Lamarsh J (1975) Introduction to nuclear engineering. Addison-Wesley, NYGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    de Sampaio AB, Junior MA, Lapa CM (2008) A CFD approach to the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides in the vicinity of NPPs. Nucl Eng Des 238:250–273Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Liu F, Huang SX (2011) Optimization theories and applications for atmospheric environmental risk control. Beijing: China Meteorological Press.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Holmes N, Morawska L (2006) A review of dispersion modelling and its application to the dispersion of particles: an overview of different dispersion models available. Atmos Environ 40(30):5902–5928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gurjar B (2008) Air pollution: health and environmental impacts. CRCGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zheng D, Leung J, Lee B, Lam H (2007) Data assimilation in the atmospheric dispersion model for nuclear accident assessments. Atmos Environ 41(11):2438–2446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nakayama H, Nagai H (2009) Development of local-scale high-resolution atmospheric dispersion model using large-eddy simulation part 1: turbulent flow and plume dispersion over a flat terrain. J Nucl Sci Technol 46:1170–1177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Punitha G, Sudha AJ, Kasinathan N, Rajan M (2008) Atmospheric dispersion of sodium aerosol due to a sodium leak in a fast breeder reactor complex. J Power Energy Sys 2:889–898Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Vach M, Duong VM (2011) Numerical modeling of flow fields and dispersion of passive pollutants in the vicinity of the temelin nuclear power plant. Environ Model Assess 16:135–143Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gallego E, Barbero R, Cuadra D, Domingo J, Iranzo A (2010) Modelling with a CFD code the nearrange dispersion of particles unexpectedly released from a nuclear power plant. In: proceedings 3rd European IRPA Congress (Helsinki), pp 14–18Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Raza S, Avila R (2001) A 3D lagrangian particle model for direct plume gamma dose rate calculations. Radiol Prot 21:145–154Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Xie D, Wang H, Kearfott KJ (2012) Modeling and experimental validation of the dispersion of 222Rn released from a uranium mine ventilation shaft. J Atmos Environ 60:453–459Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Xie D, Wang H, Kearfott KJ, Liu Z, Mo S (2014) Radon dispersion modeling and dose assessment for uranium mine ventilation shaft exhausts under neutral atmospheric stability. J Environ Radioact 129:57–62Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Duarte JP, Frutuoso e Melo PFF, Alves ASM, dos Passos EM (2013) Atmospheric dispersion and dose evaluation due to the fall of a radioactive package at a LILW facility. Int J Energy Eng, 3(3):119–126 doi: 10.5923/j.ijee.20130303.01
  15. 15.
    Fuka V, Brechler J (2012) Large eddy simulation modelling of the dispersion of radioactive particulate matter. Int J Environ Pollut 48:156–163Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nakayama H, Jurcakova K, Nagai H (2013) Development of local-scale high-resolution atmospheric dispersion model using large-eddy simulation. Part 3: turbulent flow and plume dispersion in building arrays. J Nucl Sci Technol 50:503–519Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shunxiang H, Feng L, Qingcun Z, Fei H, Jiang Z, Zifa W (2015) Modeling and optimal control of atmospheric pollution hazard in nuclear and chemical disasters. Procedia IUTAM 17:79–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Raskob W, Ehrhardt J (2007) Status of the RODOS system for off-site emergency management after nuclear and radiological accidents. In: The first international conference on risk analysis and crisis responseGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) (2008) Atmospheric dispersion and modelling, Guide No. AERB/NF/SG/S-1Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Vervecken L, Camps J, Meyers J (2015) Dynamic dose assessment by large eddy simulation of the near-range atmospheric dispersion. Published in J Radiol Prot 35:165–178. doi: 10.1088/0952-4746/35/1/165 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Leelossy Á, Molnár F, Izsák F, Havasi Á, Lagzi I, Mészáros R (2014) Dispersion modeling of air pollutants in the atmosphere: a review. Central Eur J Geosci 6(3):257–278. doi: 10.2478/s13533-012-0188-6 Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lewis EE (1977) Nuclear power reactor safety. Wiley, NYGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mechanical Engineering DepartmentNational Institute of TechnologyRaipurIndia
  2. 2.Reactor Design and Development GroupBhabha Atomic Research CentreMumbaiIndia

Personalised recommendations