Moscow, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Ukraine, and East Germany
After leaving RAND, Dr. Cole and his colleague Mr. Sergei Zamascikov organized access and conducted research in the KGB archives located in the former Soviet republics of Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Ukraine, the KGB and Soviet military intelligence (GRU) archives located in Moscow, and archives of the former German Democratic Republic (aka East Germany), including the Stasi, the East German secret police.
Archive research and interviews provided evidence that American deserters and POWs had been transferred to East Germany and elsewhere in the Soviet bloc during the Korean War and Cold War era.
A project task required an examination of the accusation that over 23,000 American POWs had been transferred to the Soviet Gulag after World War II. Evidence produced by this project and by other scholars thoroughly discredited this accusation.