Reference Values for Continuous Glucose Monitoring Parameters

  • J. Zhou
  • W. JiaEmail author


Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) parameters mainly include those reflecting mean blood glucose (MBG) and glycemic variability. An in-depth understanding of the characteristics of glucose fluctuations in normal glucose regulation population and the establishment of normal reference values are essential for clinical application and research of CGM. In this chapter, we will first introduce the method for establishing normal reference values for physiological parameters, and then we will present the normal reference values of CGM parameters for the Chinese population. Also, relevant studies conducted internationally will be reviewed in this chapter.


Continuous glucose monitoring Chinese population Normal reference value 


  1. 1.
    Chen B, Li LP, Li K. Lecture 11: how to determine the range of reference values. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2002;36:355–7. Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zhou J, Jia WP, Yu M, Yu HY, Bao YQ, Ma XJ, Lu W, Hu C, Xiang KS. The reference values of glycemic parameters for continuous glucose monitoring and its clinical application. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi. 2007;46:189–92. Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zhou J, Li H, Ran X, Yang W, Li Q, Peng Y, Li Y, Gao X, Luan X, Wang W, Jia W. Reference values for continuous glucose monitoring in Chinese subjects. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:1188–93. Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhou J, Li H, Ran X, Yang W, Li Q, Peng Y, Li Y, Gao X, Luan X, Wang W, Jia W. Establishment of normal reference ranges for glycemic variability in Chinese subjects using continuous glucose monitoring. Med Sci Monit. 2011;17:CR9–13. Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mazze RS, Strock E, Wesley D, Borgman S, Morgan B, Bergenstal R, Cuddihy R. Characterizing glucose exposure for individuals with normal glucose tolerance using continuous glucose monitoring and ambulatory glucose profile analysis. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2008;10:149–59. Scholar
  6. 6.
    Freckmann G, Hagenlocher S, Baumstark A, Jendrike N, Gillen RC, Rössner K, Haug C. Continuous glucose profiles in healthy subjects under everyday life conditions and after different meals. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2007;1:695–703. Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hill NR, Oliver NS, Choudhary P, Levy JC, Hindmarsh P, Matthews DR. Normal reference range for mean tissue glucose and glycemic variability derived from continuous glucose monitoring for subjects without diabetes in different ethnic groups. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2011;13:921–8. Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tsujino D, Nishimura R, Taki K, Miyashita Y, Morimoto A, Tajima N. Daily glucose profiles in Japanese people with normal glucose tolerance as assessed by continuous glucose monitoring. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2009;11:457–60. Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wijsman CA, van Heemst D, Hoogeveen ES, Slagboom PE, Maier AB, de Craen AJ, van der Ouderaa F, Pijl H, Westendorp RG, Mooijaart SP. Ambulant 24-h glucose rhythms mark calendar and biological age in apparently healthy individuals. Aging Cell. 2013;12:207–13. Scholar
  10. 10.
    Derosa G, Salvadeo SA, Mereu R, D’Angelo A, Ciccarelli L, Piccinni MN, Ferrari I, Gravina A, Maffioli P, Tinelli C. Continuous glucose monitoring system in free-living healthy subjects: results from a pilot study. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2009;11:159–69. Scholar
  11. 11.
    Borg R, Kuenen JC, Carstensen B, Zheng H, Nathan DM, Heine RJ, Nerup J, Borch-Johnsen K, Witte DR, ADAG Study Group. Real-life glycaemic profiles in non-diabetic individuals with low fasting glucose and normal HbA1c: the A1C-derived average glucose (ADAG) study. Diabetologia. 2010;53:1608–11. Scholar
  12. 12.
    Xu W, Zhu YH, Yan JH, Yang XB, Zhang GC, Zeng LY, Weng JP. Characteristics of real-life glucose profiles monitored by continuous glucose monitoring system in persons with normal glucose tolerance. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2012;92:1820–3. Scholar
  13. 13.
    Genuth S, Alberti KG, Bennett P, Buse J, Defronzo R, Kahn R, Kitzmiller J, Knowler WC, Lebovitz H, Lernmark A, Nathan D, Palmer J, Rizza R, Saudek C, Shaw J, Steffes M, Stern M, Tuomilehto J, Zimmet P, Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Follow-up report on the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2003;26:3160–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Alberti KG, Zimmet PZ. Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part 1: diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus provisional report of a WHO consultation. Diabet Med. 1998;15:539–53.<539::AID-DIA668>3.0.CO;2-S.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chinese Diabetes Society. Chinese clinical guideline for continuous glucose monitoring (2012). Chin J Diabetes Mellitus. 2012;4:582–90. Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zhou J, Mo Y, Li H, Ran X, Yang W, Li Q, Peng Y, Li Y, Gao X, Luan X, Wang W, Xie Y, Jia W. Relationship between HbA1c and continuous glucose monitoring in Chinese population: a multicenter study. PLoS One. 2013;8:e83827. Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nathan DM, Kuenen J, Borg R, Zheng H, Schoenfeld D, Heine RJ, A1c-Derived Average Glucose Study Group. Translating the A1C assay into estimated average glucose values. Diabetes Care. 2008;31:1473–8. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. and Shanghai Scientific and Technical Publishers 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Clinical Center for Diabetes, Shanghai Diabetes InstituteShanghai Jiao Tong University, Affiliated Sixth People’s HospitalShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations