Electric Distribution Network Planning pp 167-184 | Cite as

# Optimal Siting and Sizing of Distributed Generations

## Abstract

Recently, the penetration of distributed generations (DG) has been obviously increased in electric distribution networks throughout the world. DGs are small scale generators connected near load centers in networks, thereby avoiding losses in transmission systems and releasing system capacity. At present, there are many types of DG, such as wind power, solar power, fuel cell, biomass, micro-turbines, and diesel engines. DG can play an important role in improving the performance of the networks; therefore, allocating DG optimally is one of the most crucial subjects in DG planning. In this chapter, the DG allocation problem is studied, and an efficient method is presented for accurately solving this optimization problem. The proposed method combines between analytical expressions and an optimal power flow (OPF) algorithm to determine the optimal locations, sizes and the best mix of various DG types for minimizing the total real power loss in electric distribution networks. The proposed analytical expressions are general for directly calculating the optimal sizes of any combination of multi-type DG technologies. The optimal power factors of the various units can be analytically computed, thereby contributing positively to loss reduction. The 69-bus test system is used to test the proposed method. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated for determining the optimal mix of various combinations of different DG types.

## Keywords

Electric distribution networks DG location DG size Power loss Optimal allocation## References

- 1.L. Willis, W.G. Scott,
*Distributed Power Generation: Planning and Evaluation*, vol. 10 (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2000)Google Scholar - 2.O.M. Toledo, D.O. Filho, A.S.A.C. Diniz, J.H. Martins, M.H.M. Vale, Methodology for evaluation of grid-tie connection of distributed energy resources—case study with photovoltaic and energy storage. IEEE Trans. Power Syst.
**28**(2), 1132–1139 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 3.A.G. Exposito, A.J. Conejo, C.A. Canizares,
*Electric Energy Systems Analysis and Operation*(CRC Press, 2009)Google Scholar - 4.X. Zhang, G.G. Karady, S.T. Ariaratnam, Optimal allocation of CHP-based distributed generation on urban energy distribution networks. IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy
**5**(1) (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 5.X. Zhang, R. Sharma, Y. He, Optimal energy management of a rural microgrid system using multi-objective optimization, in
*Proceedings of IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technology Conference*(Washington DC, USA, 2012), pp. 1–8Google Scholar - 6.R.A. Walling, R. Saint, R.C. Dugan, J. Burke, L.A. Kojovic, Summary of distributed resources impact on power delivery systems. IEEE Trans. Power Del.
**23**, 1636–1644 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 7.T. Ackermann, V. Knyazkin, Interaction between distributed generation and the distribution network: operation aspects, in
*Proceedings on 2002 IEEE T&D Conference*(2002), pp. 1357–1362Google Scholar - 8.D. Singh, K.S. Verma, Multiobjective optimization for DG planning with load models. IEEE Trans. Power Syst.
**24**(1), 427–436 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 9.Y.M. Atwa, E.F. El-Saadany, M.M.A. Salama, R. Seethapathy, Optimal renewable resources mix for distribution system energy loss minimization. IEEE Trans. Power Syst.
**25**(1), 360–370 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 10.P.S. Georgilakis, N.D. Hatziargyriou, Optimal distributed generation placement in power distribution networks: models, methods, and future research. IEEE Trans. Power Systems
**28**(3), 3420–3428 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 11.N.S. Rau, Y.-H. Wan, Optimum location of resources in distributed planning. IEEE Trans. Power Syst.
**9**(4), 2014–2020 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 12.A. Keane, M. O’Malley, Optimal allocation of embedded generation on distribution networks. IEEE Trans. Power Syst.
**20**(3), 1640–1646 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 13.G.P. Harrison, A.R. Wallace, Optimal power flow evaluation of distribution network capacity for the connection of distributed generation. IEE Proc. Gener. Transm. Distrib.
**152**(1), 115–122 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 14.D. Zhu, R.P. Broadwater, K.S. Tam, R. Seguin, H. Asgeirsson, Impact of DG placement on reliability and efficiency with time-varying loads. IEEE Trans. Power Syst.
**21**(1), 419–427 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 15.D. Singh, R.K. Mirsa, D. Singh, Effect of load models in distributed generation planning. IEEE Trans. Power Syst.
**22**(4), 2204–2212 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 16.K. Vinothkumar, M.P. Selvan, Fuzzy embedded genetic algorithm method for distributed generation planning. Electr. Power Compon. Syst.
**39**(4), 346–366 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 17.K.H. Kim, Y.J. Lee, S.B. Rhee, S.K. Lee, S.K. You, Dispersed generator placement using fuzzy-GA in distribution systems, in
*Proceedings of IEEE Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting*(July 2002), pp. 1148–1153Google Scholar - 18.W. Prommee, W. Ongsakul, Optimal multiple distributed generation placement in microgrid system by improved reinitialized social structures particle swarm optimization. Eur. Trans. Electr. Power
**21**(1), 489–504 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 19.M.F. Shaaban, Y.M. Atwa, E.F. El-Saadany, DG allocation for benefit maximization in distribution networks. IEEE Trans. Power Syst.
**28**(2), 639–649 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 20.M.E.H. Golshan, S.A. Arefifar, Optimal allocation of distributed generation and reactive sources considering tap positions of voltage regulators as control variables. Eur. Trans. Electr. Power
**17**(3), 219–239 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 21.H.L. Willis, Analytical methods and rules of thumb for modeling DG-distribution interaction, in
*Proceedings of IEEE Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting*(July 2000), pp. 1643–1644Google Scholar - 22.C. Wang, M.H. Nehrir, Analytical approaches for optimal placement of distributed generation sources in power systems. IEEE Trans. Power Syst.
**19**(4), 2068–2076 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 23.S.-H. Lee, J.-W. Park, Selection of optimal location and size of multiple distributed generations by using Kalman filter algorithm. IEEE Trans. Power Syst.
**24**(3), 1393–1400 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 24.T. Xiao-bo, W. Xue-hong, A new method of distributed generation optimal placement based on load centroid, in
*2011 Proceedings of IEEE Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC),*pp. 1–5Google Scholar - 25.A. Elmitwally, A new algorithm for allocating multiple distributed generation units based on load centroid concept. Alexandria Eng. J.
**52**(4), 655–663 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 26.N. Acharya, P. Mahat, N. Mithulananthan, An analytical approach for DG allocation in primary distribution network. Int. J. Elect. Power Energy Syst.
**28**(10), 669–678 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 27.D.Q. Hung, N. Mithulananthan, R.C. Bansal, Analytical expressions for DG allocation in primary distribution networks. IEEE Trans. Energy Convers.
**25**(3), 814–820 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 28.D.Q. Hung, N. Mithulananthan, Multiple distributed generators placement in primary distribution networks for loss reduction. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.
**60**(4), 1700–1708 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 29.M.J.E. Alam, K.M. Muttaqi, D. Sutanto, A three-phase power flow approach for integrated 3-wire MV and 4-wire multigrounded LV networks with rooftop solar PV. IEEE Trans. Power Syst.
**28**(2), 1728–1737 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 30.K. Mahmoud, M. Abdel-Akher, Analysis of hybrid photovoltaic and wind energies connected to unbalanced distribution systems, in
*Proceedings of 2010 IEEE International Conference on Power and Energy (PEcon)*, (Kuala Lumpur, 2010), pp. 79–84Google Scholar - 31.K. Mahmoud, N. Yorino, A. Ahmed, Optimal distributed generation allocation in distribution systems for loss minimization. IEEE Trans. Power Syst.
**31**(2), 960–969 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 32.K. Mahmoud, N. Yorino, A. Ahmed, Power loss minimization in distribution systems using multiple distributed generations. IEEJ Trans. Elec. Electron. Eng.
**10**(5), 521–526 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 33.K. Mahmoud, Y. Naoto, Optimal combination of DG technologies in distribution systems, in
*Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC), 2015 IEEE PES Asia-Pacific*(2015)Google Scholar - 34.K. Mahmoud, Optimal integration of DG and capacitors in distribution systems, in
*Power Systems Conference (MEPCON), 2016 Eighteenth International Middle Eastern IEEE*(2016), pp. 651–655Google Scholar - 35.K. Mahmoud, Y. Naoto, Robust quadratic-based BFS power flow method for multi-phase distribution systems. IET Gener. Transm. Distrib.
**10**(9), 2240–2250 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 36.M.E. Baran, F.F. Wu, Optimum sizing of capacitor placed on radial distribution systems. IEEE Trans. Power Del.
**4**(1), 735–743 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar