Indicators, Models and Mathematical Modeling

  • Huijiong Wang
  • Shantong Li


One of the major difficulties of social systems engineering is measurement and quantification. Traditional systems engineering is mainly based upon the natural science. Mankind has mastered a relatively large part of the natural phenomena, and there are many laws, theorems and principles which can be applied to study certain objective or objective phenomena through models.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Development Research Center of the State CouncilBeijingChina
  2. 2.Department of Development Strategy and Regional EconomyDevelopment Research Center of the State CouncilBeijingChina

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