Functions of Multiple Clamp and Clamp-Loader Complexes in Eukaryotic DNA Replication
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Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and replication factor C (RFC) were identified in the late 1980s as essential factors for replication of simian virus 40 DNA in human cells, by reconstitution of the reaction in vitro. Initially, they were only thought to be involved in the elongation stage of DNA replication. Subsequent studies have demonstrated that PCNA functions as more than a replication factor, through its involvement in multiple protein-protein interactions. PCNA appears as a functional hub on replicating and replicated chromosomal DNA and has an essential role in the maintenance genome integrity in proliferating cells.
Eukaryotes have multiple paralogues of sliding clamp, PCNA and its loader, RFC. The PCNA paralogues, RAD9, HUS1, and RAD1 form the heterotrimeric 9-1-1 ring that is similar to the PCNA homotrimeric ring, and the 9-1-1 clamp complex is loaded onto sites of DNA damage by its specific loader RAD17-RFC. This alternative clamp-loader system transmits DNA-damage signals in genomic DNA to the checkpoint-activation network and the DNA-repair apparatus.
Another two alternative loader complexes, CTF18-RFC and ELG1-RFC, have roles that are distinguishable from the role of the canonical loader, RFC. CTF18-RFC interacts with one of the replicative DNA polymerases, Polε, and loads PCNA onto leading-strand DNA, and ELG1-RFC unloads PCNA after ligation of lagging-strand DNA. In the progression of S phase, these alternative PCNA loaders maintain appropriate amounts of PCNA on the replicating sister DNAs to ensure that specific enzymes are tethered at specific chromosomal locations.
KeywordsDNA polymerase PCNA RFC PIP box Leading strand Lagging strand Chromatin Cohesion Unloading
We would like to thank Dr. T. S. Takahashi (Kyushu University) for the comments on the manuscript. We apologize to those colleagues whose work is not cited because of space restrictions. This work is supported by Grants-in-aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI) 25131714, 25440011, 26114714, and 16H04743.
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