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Resource-Conserving Technologies for Enhancing Resource Use Efficiency and Crop Productivity

  • Hari Ram
  • Balwinder Kumar
  • Navneet Aggarwal
  • Jashanjot Kaur
Chapter

Abstract

Declining soil, water and human resources in rice-wheat and other irrigated cropping systems need the resource-conserving technologies (RCTs) for agricultural sustainability. After the era of green revolution, the use of soil and water resources is overexploited. The income from irrigated agroecosystem especially from rice-wheat system is declining in many areas as cultivation costs are rising faster than crop prices. The various RCTs can save soil, water and other natural resources. Zero tillage with or without mulch/happy seeder sowing technology not only saves the money spent on inputs but also gives similar or higher grain yields in various crops by conserving soil moisture but also reducing the weed density and environmental pollution. Furrow-irrigated bed planting/permanent raised-bed technologies can be practices for sustainability of major cropping systems. Hydrogel (water-adsorbing material) can effectively be used under rainfed/dryland or limited water conditions for increasing the water use efficiency. Direct seeding of rice with seed-cum-fertilizer drill under well-levelled conditions holds the promise of saving water and human resources. Human resources are decreasing due to industrialization, so direct seeding or mechanical transplanting of rice is the best solution. Laser land levelling can save huge amount of the irrigation water for getting similar productivity as in conventionally levelled fields. As the machinery required for adoption of these RCTs are heavy and costly, these machines should be used on co-operative basis.

Keywords

Soil Water Resource-conserving technologies Zero tillage Happy seeder Mechanical transplanter Laser land leveller Furrow-irrigated raised-bed system Grain yield 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hari Ram
    • 1
  • Balwinder Kumar
    • 2
  • Navneet Aggarwal
    • 3
  • Jashanjot Kaur
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant Breeding & GeneticsPunjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia
  2. 2.Krishi Vigyan KendraTarn TaranIndia
  3. 3.South Australian Research and Development InstituteAdelaideAustralia

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