State Variables—Part I

  • Suhash Chandra Dutta Roy

Here, we introduce state variables, which were the hot topics in the middle of 1960s. Later, they have seeped into and made deep impact on signals and systems, circuit theory, controls, etc. You better get familiar with them and make friends with them as early as possible.


State variables Standard forms Choice of state variables Solution of state equations 


  1. 1.
    E.S. Kuh, R.A. Rohrer, The state variable approach to network theory, in Proc IRE, vol 53 (July 1965), pp. 672–686Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    R.J. Schwartz, B. Friedland, Linear Systems (McGraw Hill, 1965)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology DelhiNew DelhiIndia

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