Development of Dry Anaerobic Technologies of Bio-waste and Unlock the Barriers for Valorization

  • Ahmed TawfikEmail author
  • Mohamed Elsamadony


Solid waste (SW) is highly produced, wherever there is human habitation. Uncollected and improper management of SW in developing countries creates sanitary hazardous and sources of public nuisance. Fortunately, biodegradable organic fractions represent approximately 60–70% of SW, which could be easily converted into energy in the form of H2 via dry and wet anaerobic digestion process. Moreover, the digestate is rich with plant nutrients (N&P), which could be used for crop production. Factors affecting H2 production such as pH levels, moisture content, temperature, food to microorganism (F/M) ratio, N/P ratio, mixing mode, sludge residence time (SRT), hydraulic retention time (HRT), organic loading rate (OLR), particle size (PS), and initial ammonia concentration are addressed in this chapter. Moreover, enhancement of H2 production using mixtures of different substrates via co-digestion bioprocess is extensively discussed to unlock the barriers for valorization of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). This will certainly provide the stakeholders and community the beneficial use of OFMSW to contribute closing the cycles of rural–urban–industrial nutrient and renewable energy in a sustainable way.


Bio-waste Anaerobic digestion Biodegradation Hydrogen 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Environmental Engineering DepartmentEgypt – Japan University of Science and Technology (E-JUST)AlexandriaEgypt
  2. 2.Water Pollution Research DepartmentNational Research CentreGizaEgypt
  3. 3.Public Works Engineering Department, Faculty of EngineeringTanta UniversityTanta CityEgypt

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