Biohydrogen Production: An Outlook of Fermentative Processes and Integration Strategies

  • G. N. Nikhil
  • Omprakash Sarkar
  • S. Venkata MohanEmail author


The emanations upon combustion of petroleum fuels cause grave pessimistic impact on surrounding ambiance and global climate change. Therefore, the contemporary stance of scientific fraternity is to generate energy and mercantile products through biological methods with waste as a resource. Biohydrogen production from wastewater seems to be a promising green option for sustainable renewable energy. The process is feasible from practical point of view and can be operated under ambient conditions. It has been attracting attention due to its applicability to different types of wastewaters, and the production costs of biohydrogen can compete economically with other traditional methods. However, the crucial challenges like enhancing rate and yield for sustainable biohydrogen production still persist. During fermentation process, the undissociated volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and alcohols accumulate in the system leading to inhibition and redundancy in substrate degradation. Employing integration strategies with other bioprocesses like photo-fermentation or bio-electrochemical systems is the sanguine option to make the process frugally possible.


Biohydrogen Fermentation Renewable Energy Photosynthetic 



Funding received from the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), Government of India and Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) in the form of research grants as MNRE Project No. 103/131/2008-NT, XII 5-year network project (SETCA (CSC-0113), respectively. GNN and OS acknowledge the CSIR for providing Senior Research Fellowship.


  1. Agler MT, Wrenn BA, Zinder SH, Angenent LT (2011) Waste to bioproduct conversion with undefined mixed cultures: the carboxylate platform. Trends Biotechnol 29:70–78. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Allakhverdiev SI, Thavasi V, Kreslavski VD, Zharmukhamedov SK, Klimo VV, Ramakrishna S, Los DA, Mimurod M, Nishiharae H, Carpentier R (2010) Photosynthetic hydrogen production. J Photochem Photobiol C: Photochem Rev 11:101–113. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ambler JR, Logan BE (2011) Evaluation of stainless steel cathodes and a bicarbonate buffer for hydrogen production in microbial electrolysis cells using a new method for measuring gas production. Int J Hydrog Energy 36:160–166. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Angenent LT, Karim K, Al-Dahhan MH, Wrenn BA, Domíguez-Espinosa R (2004) Production of bioenergy and biochemicals from industrial and agricultural wastewater. Trends Biotechnol 22:477–485. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Arimi MM, Knodel J, Kiprop A, Namango SS, Zhang Y, Geißen S-U (2015) Strategies for improvement of biohydrogen production from organicrich wastewater: a review. Biomass Bioenergy 75:101–118. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arunasri K, Modestra JA, Yeruva DK, Krishna KV, Venkata Mohan S (2016) Polarized potential and electrode materials implication on electrofermentative di-hydrogen production: microbial assemblages and hydrogenase gene copy variation. Bioresour Technol 200:691–698. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bhaskar T, Balagurumurthy B, Singh R, Poddar MK (2013) Thermochemical route for biohydrogen production. In: Pandey A, Chang JS, Hallenbeck P, Larroche C (eds) Biohydrogen. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 285–316. ISBN: 978-0-444-59555-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blankenship RE, Olson JM, Miller M (1995) Antenna complexes from green photosynthetic bacteria. In: Blankenship RE, Madigan Bauer MT (eds) Anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. Springer, Dordrecht. ISBN: 978-0-7923-3681-5, pp 399–435. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Call D, Logan BE (2008) Hydrogen production in a single chamber microbial electrolysis cell lacking a membrane. Environ Sci Technol 42:3401–3406. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Cavinato C, Giuliano A, Bolzonella D, Pavan P, Cecchi F (2012) Bio-hythane production from food waste by dark fermentation coupled with anaerobic digestion process: a long-term pilot scale experience. Int J Hydrog Energy 37:11549–11555. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chandra R, Venkata Mohan S (2011) Microalgal community and their growth conditions influence biohydrogen production during integration of dark-fermentation and photo-fermentation processes. Int J Hydrog Energy 36:12211–12219. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chandra R, Venkata Mohan S (2014) Enhanced bio-hydrogenesis by co-culturing photosynthetic bacteria with acidogenic process: augmented dark-photo fermentative hybrid system to regulate volatile fatty acid inhibition. Int J Hydrog Energy 39:7604–7615. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chandra R, Nikhil GN, Venkata Mohan S (2015) Single-stage operation of hybrid dark-photo fermentation to enhance biohydrogen production through regulation of system redox condition: evaluation with real-field wastewater. Int J Mol Sci 16:9540–9556. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Cheng S, Logan BE (2011) High hydrogen production rate of microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) with reduced electrode spacing. Bioresour Technol 102:3571–3574. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Constant P, Hallenbeck PC (2013) Hydrogenase. In: Pandey A, Chang JS, Hallenbeck P, Larroche C (eds) Biohydrogen. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 75–102. ISBN: 978-0-444-59555-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dahiya S, Sarkar O, Swamy Y, Venkata Mohan S (2015) Acidogenic fermentation of food waste for volatile fatty acid production with cogeneration of biohydrogen. Bioresour Technol 182:103–113. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Dunn S (2002) Hydrogen futures: toward a sustainable energy system. Int J Hydrog Energy 27:235–264. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Eden (2010) Annual Report. Available from:
  19. Elsharnouby O, Hafez H, Nakhla G, El Naggar MH (2013) A critical literature review on biohydrogen production by pure cultures. Int J Hydrog Energy 38:4945–4966. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Escapa A, San Martin MI, Moran A (2014) Potential use of microbial electrolysis cells in domestic wastewater treatment plants for energy recovery. Front Energy Res 2:1–10. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fradinho J, Domingos J, Carvalho G, Oehmen A, Reis M (2013) Polyhydroxyalkanoates production by a mixed photosynthetic consortium of bacteria and algae. Bioresour Technol 132:146–153. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Ghimire A, Frunzo L, Pirozzi F, Trably E, Escudie R, Lens PNL, Esposito G (2015) A review on dark fermentative biohydrogen production from organic biomass: process parameters and use of by-products. Appl Energy 144:73–95. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Goud RK, Venkata Mohan S (2012a) Acidic and alkaline shock pretreatment to enrich acidogenic biohydrogen producing mixed culture: long term synergetic evaluation of microbial inventory, dehydrogenase activity and bio-electro kinetics. RSC Adv 2:6336–6353. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Goud RK, Venkata Mohan S (2012b) Regulating biohydrogen production from wastewater by applying organic load-shock: change in the microbial community structure and bio-electrochemical behavior over long-term operation. Int J Hydrog Energy 37:17763–17777. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Goud RK, Sarkar O, Chiranjeevi P, Venkata Mohan S (2014) Bioaugmentation of potent acidogenic isolates: a strategy for enhancing biohydrogen production at elevated organic load. Bioresour Technol 165:223–232. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Goud RK, Arunasri K, Yeruva DK, Krishna KV, Dahiya S, Venkata Mohan S (2017) Impact of selectively enriched microbial communities on longterm fermentative biohydrogen production. Bioresour Technol. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Greenbaum E (1988a) Energetic efficiency of hydrogen photoevolution by algal water splitting. Biophys J 54:365–368. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Greenbaum E (1988b) Interfacial photoreactions at the photosynthetic membrane interface: an upper limit for the number of platinum atoms required to form a hydrogen-evolving platinum metal catalyst. J Phys Chem 92:4571–4574. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Guo XM, Trably E, Latrille E, Carrère H, Steyer J-P (2010) Hydrogen production from agricultural waste by dark fermentation: a review. Int J Hydrog Energy 35:10660–10673. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hallenbeck PC (2013) Photofermentative biohydrogen production. In: Pandey A, Chang JS, Hallenbeck P, Larroche C (eds) Biohydrogen. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 145–159. ISBN: 978-0-444-59555-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hallenbeck PC, Benemann JR (2002) Biological hydrogen production; fundamentals and limiting processes. Int J Hydrog Energy 27:1185–1193. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hallenbeck PC, Ghosh D (2009) Advances in fermentative biohydrogen production: the way forward? Trends Biotechnol 27:287–297. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Hamelers HV, Ter Heijne A, Sleutels TH, Jeremiasse AW, Strik DP, Buisman CJ (2010) New applications and performance of bioelectrochemical systems. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 85:1673–1685. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Jeremiasse AW, Hamelers HVM, Buisman CJN (2010) Microbial electrolysis cell with a microbial biocathode. Bioelectrochemistry 78:39–43. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Krassen H, Schwarze A, Friedrich B, Ataka K, Lenz O, Heberle J (2009) Photosynthetic hydrogen production by a hybrid complex of photosystem I and [NiFe]-hydrogenase. ACS Nano 3:4055–4061. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Lam MK, Lee KT (2013) Biohydrogen production from algae. In: Pandey A, Chang JS, Hallenbeck P, Larroche C (eds) Biohydrogen. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 161–184. ISBN: 978-0-444-59555-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Laurinavichene TV, Belokopytov BF, Laurinavichius KS, Khusnutdinova AN, Seibert M, Tsygankov AA (2012) Towards the integration of darkand photo-fermentative waste treatment. 4. Repeated batch sequential dark- and photofermentation using starch as substrate. Int J Hydrog Energy 37:8800–8810. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lenin Babu M, Sarma P, Venkata Mohan S (2013a) Microbial electrolysis of synthetic acids for biohydrogen production: influence of biocatalyst pretreatment and pH with the function of applied potential. J Microb Biochem Technol S 6:2. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lenin Babu M, Subhash GV, Sarma PN, Venkata Mohan S (2013b) Bio-electrolytic conversion of acidogenic effluents to biohydrogen: an integration strategy for higher substrate conversion and product recovery. Bioresour Technol 133:322–331. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Liang D, Liu Y, Peng S, Lan F, Lu S, Xiang Y (2014) Effects of bicarbonate and cathode potential on hydrogen production in a biocathode electrolysis cell. Front Environ Sci Eng 8:624–630. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lin C-Y, Lay C-H, Sen B, Chu C-Y, Kumar G, Chen C-C, Chang J-S (2012) Fermentative hydrogen production from wastewaters: a review and prognosis. Int J Hydrog Energy 37:15632–15642. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Liu Z, Zhang C, Lu Y, Wu X, Wanf L, Wang L, Han B, Xing QH (2013b) States and challenges for high-value biohythane production from waste biomass by dark fermentation technology. Bioresour Technol 135:292–303. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Markets and Markets (2011) Hydrogen generation market-by merchant and captive type, distributed and centralized generation, application and technology-trends and global forecasts (2011–2016). Report code: EP1708.
  44. Melis A, Happe T (2001) Hydrogen production. Green algae as a source of energy. Plant Physiol 127:740–748. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Melis A, Zhang L, Forestier M, Ghirardi ML, Seibert M (2000) Sustained photobiological hydrogen gas production upon reversible inactivation of oxygen evolution in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Plant Physiol 122:127–136. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Modestra JA, Babu ML, Venkata Mohan S (2015) Electro-fermentation of real-field acidogenic spent wash effluents for additional biohydrogen production with simultaneous treatment in a microbial electrolysis cell. Sep Purif Technol 150:308–315. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mohanakrishna G, Venkata Mohan S (2013) Multiple process integrations for broad perspective analysis of fermentative H production from wastewater treatment: technical and environmental considerations. Appl Energy 107:244–254. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mohanakrishna G, Venkata Mohan S, Sarma PN (2010) Utilizing acid-rich effluents of fermentative hydrogen production process as substrate for harnessing bioelectricity: an integrative approach. Int J Hydrog Energy 35:3440–3449. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Monlau F, Kaparaju P, Trably E, Steyer J-P, Carrere H (2015) Alkaline pretreatment to enhance one-stage CH and two-stage H /CH production from sunflower stalks: mass, energy and economical balances. Chem Eng J 260:377–385. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Nam J-Y, Tokash JC, Logan BE (2011) Comparison of microbial electrolysis cells operated with added voltage or by setting the anode potential. Int J Hydrog Energy 36:10550–10556. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Nikhil GN, Venkata Mohan S, Swamy YV (2014a) Behavior of acidogenesis during biohydrogen production with formate and glucose as carbon source: substrate associated dehydrogenase expression. Int J Hydrog Energy 39:7486–7495. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Nikhil GN, Venkata Venkata Mohan S, Swamy YV (2014b) Systematic approach to assess biohydrogen potential of anaerobic sludge and soil rhizobia as biocatalysts: influence of crucial factors affecting acidogenic fermentation. Bioresour Technol 165:323–331. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Nikhil GN, Subhash GV, Yeruva DK, Venkata Mohan S (2015a) Synergistic yield of dual energy forms through biocatalyzed electrofermentation of waste: stoichiometric analysis of electron and carbon distribution. Energy 88:281–291. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Nikhil GN, Venkata Mohan S, Swamy YV (2015b) Applied potentials regulate recovery of residual hydrogen from acid-rich effluents: influence of biocathodic buffer capacity over process performance. Bioresour Technol 188:65–72. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Nissilä ME, Lay C-H, Puhakka JA (2014) Dark fermentative hydrogen production from lignocellulosic hydrolyzates – a review. Biomass Bioenergy 67:145–159. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Nouni M (2012) Hydrogen energy and fuel cell technology: recent developments and future prospects in India. Renew Energy. Akshay Urja 5:10–14Google Scholar
  57. Pasupuleti SB, Venkata Mohan S (2015a) Acidogenic hydrogen production from wastewater: process analysis with the function of influencing parameters. Int J Energy Res 39:1131–1141. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Pasupuleti SB, Venkata Mohan S (2015b) Single-stage fermentation process for high-value biohythane production with the treatment of distillery spent-wash. Bioresour Technol 189:177–185. 10.1016/j.biortech.2015.03.128 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Patel SK, Singh M, Kumar P, Purohit HJ, Kalia VC (2012) Exploitation of defined bacterial cultures for production of hydrogen and polyhydroxybutyrate from pea-shells. Biomass Bioenergy 36:218–225. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pisciotta JM, Zaybak Z, Call DF, Nam JY, Logan BE (2012) Enrichment of microbial electrolysis cell biocathodes from sediment microbial fuel cell bioanodes. Appl Environ Microbiol 78:5212–5219. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Rama Mohan S (2015) Structure and growth of research on biohydrogen generation using wastewater. Int J Hydrog Energy 40:16056–16069. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Sambusiti C, Bellucci M, Zabaniotou A, Beneduce L, Monlau F (2015) Algae as promising feedstocks for fermentative biohydrogen production according to a biorefinery approach: a comprehensive review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 44:20–36. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Saratale GD, Saratale RG, Chang J-S (2013) Biohydrogen from renewable resources. In: Pandey A, Chang JS, Hallenbeck P, Larroche C (eds) Biohydrogen. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 185–221. ISBN: 978-0-444-59555-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sarkar O, Venkata Mohan S (2016) Deciphering acidogenic process towards biohydrogen, biohythane, and short chain fatty acids production: multi-output optimization strategy. Biofuel Res J 3:458–469. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sarkar O, Venkata Mohan S (2017) Pre-aeration of food waste to augment acidogenic process at higher organic load: valorizing biohydrogen, volatile fatty acids and biohythane. Bioresour Technol. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sarkar O, Goud RK, Subhash GV, Venkata Mohan S (2013) Relative effect of different inorganic acids on selective enrichment of acidogenic biocatalyst for fermentative biohydrogen production from wastewater. Bioresour Technol 147:321–331. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Sarkar O, Kumar AN, Dahiya S, Krishna KV, Yeruva DK, Venkata Mohan S (2016) Regulation of acidogenic metabolism towards enhanced short chain fatty acid biosynthesis from waste: metagenomic profiling. RSC Adv 6:18641–18653. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sarkar O, Butti SK, Venkata Mohan S (2017) Acidogenesis driven by hydrogen partial pressure towards bioethanol production through fatty acids reduction. Energy 118:425–434. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Show K-Y, Lee D-J (2013) Bioreactor and bioprocess design for biohydrogen production. In: Larroche AP-SCCH (ed) Biohydrogen. Elsevier, Amsterdam. In: Pandey A, Chang JS, Hallenbeck P, Larroche C (eds) Biohydrogen, pp 317–337. Elsevier, Amsterdam. ISBN: 978-0-444-59555-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Srikanth S, Venkata Mohan S (2012) Regulatory function of divalent cations in controlling the acidogenic biohydrogen production process. RSC Adv 2:6576–6589. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Srikanth S, Venkata Mohan S (2014) Regulating feedback inhibition caused by the accumulated acid intermediates during acidogenic hydrogen production through feed replacement. Int J Hydrog Energy 39:10028–10040. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Srikanth S, Venkata Mohan S, Prathima Devi M, Peri D, Sarma PN (2009) Acetate and butyrate as substrates for hydrogen production through photo-fermentation: process optimization and combined performance evaluation. Int J Hydrog Energy 34:7513–7522. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Thi NBD, Lin C-Y, Kumar G (2016) Waste-to-wealth for valorization of food waste to hydrogen and methane towards creating a sustainable ideal source of bioenergy. J Clean Prod 122:29–41. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Van Ginkel S, Logan BE (2005a) Inhibition of biohydrogen production by undissociated acetic and butyric acids. Environ Sci Technol 39:9351–9356. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Van Ginkel SW, Logan B (2005b) Increased biological hydrogen production with reduced organic loading. Water Res 39:3819–3826. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Venkata Mohan S (2009) Harnessing of biohydrogen from wastewater treatment using mixed fermentative consortia: process evaluation towards optimization. Int J Hydrog Energy 34:7460–7474. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Venkata Mohan S, Lalit Babu V, Sarma PN (2007a) Anaerobic biohydrogen production from dairy wastewater treatment in sequencing batch reactor (AnSBR): effect of organic loading rate. Enzym Microb Technol 41:506–515. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Venkata Mohan S, Vijaya Bhaskar Y, Murali Krishna P, Chandrasekhara Rao N, Lalit Babu V, Sarma PN (2007b) Biohydrogen production from chemical wastewater as substrate by selectively enriched anaerobic mixed consortia: influence of fermentation pH and substrate composition. Int J Hydrog Energy 32:2286–2295. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Venkata Mohan S, Vijaya Bhaskar Y, Sarma PN (2007c) Biohydrogen production from chemical wastewater treatment in biofilm configured reactor operated in periodic discontinuous batch mode by selectively enriched anaerobic mixed consortia. Water Res 41:2652–2664. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Venkata Mohan S, Babu VL, Sarma P (2008a) Effect of various pretreatment methods on anaerobic mixed microflora to enhance biohydrogen production utilizing dairy wastewater as substrate. Bioresour Technol 99:59–67. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Venkata Mohan S, Mohanakrishna G, Sarma P (2008b) Integration of acidogenic and methanogenic processes for simultaneous production of biohydrogen and methane from wastewater treatment. Int J Hydrog Energy 33:2156–2166. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Venkata Mohan S, Venkateswar Reddy M, Venkata Subhash G, Sarma PN (2010) Fermentative effluents from hydrogen producing bioreactor as substrate for poly (β -OH) butyrate production with simultaneous treatment: an integrated approach. Bioresour Technol 101:9382–9386. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Venkata Mohan S, Agarwal L, Mohanakrishna G, Srikanth S, Kapley A, Purohit HJ, Sarma PN (2011) Firmicutes with iron dependent hydrogenase drive hydrogen production in anaerobic bioreactor using distillery wastewater. Int J Hydrog Energy 36:8234–8242. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Venkata Mohan S, Velvizhi G, Vamshi Krishna K, Lenin Babu M (2014) Microbial catalyzed electrochemical systems: a bio-factory with multi-facet applications. Bioresour Technol 165:355–364. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Venkata Mohan S, Nikhil GN, Chiranjeevi P, Reddy CN, Rohit MV, Kumar AN, Sarkar O (2016) Waste biorefinery models towards sustainable circular bioeconomy: crit rev future perspect. Bioresour Technol 215:2–12. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Venkata Mohan S, Srikanth S, Nikhil GN (2017) Augmentation of bacterial homeostasis by regulating in situ buffer capacity: significance of total dissolved salts over acidogenic metabolism. Bioresour Technol 225:34–39. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Venkateswar Reddy M, Venkata Mohan S (2012) Influence of aerobic and anoxic microenvironments on polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production from food waste and acidogenic effluents using aerobic consortia. Bioresour Technol 103:313–321. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Venkateswar Reddy M, Chitanya DNSK, Nikhil GN, Venkata Mohan S, Sarma PN (2014) Influence of co-factor on enhancement of bioplastic production through wastewater treatment. Clean Soil Air Water 42:809–814. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wagner RC, Regan JM, S-E O, Zuo Y, Logan BE (2009) Hydrogen and methane production from swine wastewater using microbial electrolysis cells. Water Res 43:1480–1488. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Wang H, Ren ZJ (2013) A comprehensive review of microbial electrochemical systems as a platform technology. Biotechnol Adv 31:1796–1807. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Wang B, Wan W, Wang J (2009) Effect of ammonia concentration on fermentative hydrogen production by mixed cultures. Bioresour Technol 100:1211–1213. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Willquist K, Nkemka VN, Svensson H, Pawar S, Ljunggren M, Karlsson H, Murto M, Hulteberg C, van Niel EWJ, Liden G (2012) Design of a novel biohythane process with high H and CH production rates. Int J Hydrog Energy 37:17749–17762. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Wong YM, TY W, Juan JC (2014) A review of sustainable hydrogen production using seed sludge via dark fermentation. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 34:471–482. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Zhu H, Parker W, Basnar R, Proracki A, Falletta P, Béland M, Seto P (2009) Buffer requirements for enhanced hydrogen production in acidogenic digestion of food wastes. Bioresour Technol 100:5097–5102. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. N. Nikhil
    • 1
  • Omprakash Sarkar
    • 1
  • S. Venkata Mohan
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Bioengineering and Environmental Sciences Lab, EEFF DepartmentCSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (CSIR-IICT)HyderabadIndia

Personalised recommendations