Exosomes Potentiate NF-κB Signaling, Tumor Progression, and Metastasis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  • Kishore Kumar JellaEmail author
  • Zhentian Li


Worldwide, HCC is considered as one of the major cancer-related deaths. Tumor-derived exosomes play a potential role in HCC by mediating intracellular communication, immune responses, and antigen presentation. Exosomes communicate between the cells using proteins, mRNA, miRNA, lipids, and DNA present in their cargo. Increased understanding of exosomes and their role in cancer could lead to a powerful strategy for the treatment of HCC. In this chapter, we summarize the role of exosomes in cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis and in NF-κB through its miRNA. MiRNA derived from exosomes of HCC cells can enhance and modulate TAK1 and downstream signaling in recipient cells. Exosomes have a greater potential in the near future making it as prognostic biomarkers; they can serve in anticancer drug resistance and immunotherapy in the near future.


HCC Exosomes miRNA Proteins NF-κB TNF-α TGF-β 



American Cancer Society


Cancer-associated fibroblasts


Epidermal growth factor receptor


Epithelial mesenchymal transition


Epithelial cell adhesion molecule


Endosomal sorting complex required for transport


Fibroblast activation protein


FMS-like tyrosine kinase-3


Glypican I


Guanosine triphosphate


Hepatocellular carcinoma


Hepatocellular virus


Hypoxia-inducing factor


Interleukin 1




Mitogen-activated protein kinase


Matrix metalloproteinases


Nuclear factor kappa B


Platelet-derived growth factor


Platelet-derived growth factor receptor


Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase I


TGF-β-activated kinase


Tumor growth factor


Toll-like receptor


Tumor necrosis factor


Vascular endothelial growth factor



I would like to acknowledge Dr. Nagaraju P. Ganji for giving me the opportunity to write this book chapter. I appreciate the guidance, support, and encouragement in writing this book chapter. A special thanks to Addie Byrd for helping in scientific corrections.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Radiation OncologyEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA

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