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Roles of Mitochondrial DNA in Energy Metabolism

  • Jiapei Lv
  • Madhav Bhatia
  • Xiangdong WangEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1038)

Abstract

Mitochondria are independent double-membrane organelles responsible for energy production, specifically by completing oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondria are essential to regulate energy metabolism, signaling pathways, and cell death. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can be altered by metabolic disorders, oxidative stress, or inflammation in the progression and development of various diseases. In this chapter, we overview the role of mtDNA in energy metabolism and the diseases that are associated with mtDNA abnormality, with a special focus on the major factors which regulate the mechanism of mtDNA in metabolism.

Keywords

Mitochondria Metabolism Energy mtDNA Disease 

Abbreviations

ETC

Electron transport chain

HSP1

Heavy-strand promoter 1

LSP

Light-strand promoter

mtDNA

Mitochondrial DNA

OXPHOS

Oxidative phosphorylation

POLRMT

Single-subunit RNA polymerase

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

TFAM

Mitochondrial transcription factor A

TFB2M

Mitochondrial transcription factor B2

Notes

Acknowledgments

The work was supported by the Zhongshan Distinguished Professor Grant (XDW), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (91230204, 81270099, 81320108001, 81270131, 81300010), the Shanghai Committee of Science and Technology (12JC1402200, 12431900207, 11410708600, 14431905100), Operation funding of Shanghai Institute of Clinical Bioinformatics, the Ministry of Education for Academic Special Science and Research Foundation for PhD Education (20130071110043), and the National Key Research and Development Program (2016YFC0902400, 2017YFSF090207).

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Copyright information

© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2018 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Zhongshan Hospital Institute of Fudan UniversityShanghai Medical SchoolShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Department of PathologyUniversity of OtagoWellingtonNew Zealand
  3. 3.Zhongshan Hospital Institute of Clinical ScienceFudan University, Shanghai Medical CollegeShanghaiChina

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