Inspection and Testing of Respirators and Anaesthesia Machines

Part of the Series in Biomedical Engineering book series (BIOMENG)


Respirators are used in intensive care units and in operating rooms. It consists of filtering, air compression, and humidifying control board units. A respirator is a device that combines the patient’s respiratory tract to assist the respiratory system in conditions where the patient has difficulty in breathing or after operations. The device supplies controlled air to the patient by the inner compressor. The breakdown of the oxygen sensor and the heating of the circuit boards (if the filter is not cleaned) are the most common problems in respirators. They may not stabilize with required values over time and the tester is used to maintain stability. The device must be calibrated regularly or if the gauge of the test device does not match the standard values of gas flow, volume, pressure and oxygen parameters. The anaesthesia machine delivers pressurised medical gases like air, oxygen, nitrous oxide, heliox etc. and controls the gas flow individually. It composes a known and controlled gas mixture at a known flow rate and then delivers it to the gas outlet of the machine. Therefore, the fresh gas flow is serviced to the anaesthesia circle breathing system in order to make artificial respiration in the patient and monitor vital functions closely. For patient safety, the most important thing is to check out the system regularly and in pre-use and to ensure that there exists a ready and functioning alternative solution for ventilating the patient’s lungs.


  1. 1.
    Geddes LA (2007) The history of artificial respiration. IEEE Eng Med Biol Mag: Q Mag Eng Med Biol Soc 26(6): 38–41. doi: 10.1109/EMB.2007.907081.PMID 18189086
  2. 2.
    Russell WR, Schuster E, Smith AC, Spalding JM (1956) Radcliffe respiration pumps. The Lancet. 270(6922): 539–541. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(56)90597-9. PMID 13320798
  3. 3.
    Bellis M (2009) Forrest bird invented a fluid control device, respirator and pediatric ventilator. Retrieved 4 June 2009
  4. 4.
    OSHA Office of Training and Education, Training and Reference Materials Library (2004) Respiratory protection frequently asked questions, Rev. Nov 2004.
  5. 5.
    Brockwell RC, Andrews GG (2002) Understanding your anaesthesia machine. ASA refresher courses, vol 4. Lippincott Williams & Wilkin, Philadelphia, pp 41–59Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Thompson PW, Wilkinson DJ (1985) Development of anaesthetic machines. Br J Anaesth 57:640–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dorsch JA, Dorsch SE (eds) (2007) Understanding anesthesia equipment. 5th edn. Hazards of anesthesia machines and breathing systems, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 373–403Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brockwell RC, Andrews JJ (2002) Complications of inhaled anesthesia delivery systems. Anesthesiol Clin North America. 20:539–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sugiuchi N, Miyazato K, Hara K, Horiguchi T, Shinozaki K, Aoki T (2000) Failure of operating room oxygen delivery due to a structural defect in the ceiling column. Masui. 49:1165–1168Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Aitkenhead AR (2005) Injuries associated with anaesthesia. A global perspective. Br J Anaesth 95(1):95–109. Epub 2005 May 20Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Posner KL (2001) Closed claims project shows safety evolution. Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation NewsletterGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    FDA, MAUDE—manufacturer and user facility device experience database.
  13. 13.
    Subrahmanyam M, Mohan S (2013) Safety features in anaesthesia machine, Indian J Anaesth 57(5): 472–480. doi: 10.4103/0019-5049.120143
  14. 14.
    Skinner M (1998). Ventilator function under hyperbaric conditions. South Pac Underw Med Soc J 28(2). Retrieved 4 June 2009Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Weaver LK, Greenway L, Elliot CG (1988). Performance of the Seachrist 500A hyperbaric ventilator in a monoplace hyperbaric chamber. J Hyperb Med 3(4): 215–225. Retrieved 4 June 2009Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Anderson HE, Bythell V, Gemmell L, Jones H, McIvor D, Pattinson A, Sim P, Walker I (2012) Checking anaesthetic equipment. Anaesthesia 67: 660–668. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2044.2012.07163.x]
  17. 17.
    Cassidy CJ, Smith A, Arnot-Smith J (2011) Critical incident reports concerning anaesthetic equipment: analysis of the UK national reporting and learning system (nrls) data from 2006–2008. Anaesthesia 66:879–888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Merchant R, Chartrand D, Dain S, Dobson G, Kurrek M, Lagace A, Stacey S, Thiessen B (2013) Guidelines to the practice of anaesthesia Revised Edition 2013Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland. Standards of Monitoring during Anaesthesia and Recovery 4, 2007. ofmonitoring07.pdf. Accessed 29 Jan 2012)
  20. 20.
    ECRI Institute (1998) Medical device safety reports, minimum requirements for ventilator testing, guidance, health devices 27(9–10):363–364 Guidance [Health Devices Sep-Oct 1998;27(9-10):363-4]
  21. 21.
    Goneppanavar U, Prabhu M (2013) Anaesthesia machine: checklist, hazards, scavenging. Indian J Anaesth 57(5): 533–540. doi: 10.4103/0019-5049.120151.
  22. 22.
    Badnjevic A, Gurbeta L, Jimenez ER, Iadanza E (2017) Testing of mechanical ventilators and infant incubators in healthcare institutions. Technol Health Care JGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gurbeta L, Badnjevic A, Sejdinovic D, Alic B, Abd El-Ilah L, Zunic E (2016) Software solution for tracking inspection processes of medical devices from legal metrology system. XIV Mediterranean conference on medical and biological engineering and computing (MEDICON), Paphos, Cyprus, 31 Mar–02 AprilGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    IEC EN 60601-1 General requirements for electrical medical equipmentGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.TÜBİTAK UME, National Metrology Institute of TurkeyKocaeliTurkey

Personalised recommendations