Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder: Differentiating Features and Contemporary Treatment Approaches

  • Ather Muneer


Principal mood disorders which include major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder are prevalent conditions with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Individuals of both sexes are affected usually in early adulthood, and the disorders follow a relapsing and remitting course throughout life. These are conceptualized as multisystem disorders with a progressive course, such that earlier stages are less virulent and easier to manage than later stages which are characterized by treatment refractoriness, cognitive deficits, and functional decline. Major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder are distinct conditions with differences in clinical presentation and treatment modalities. These distinctions arise from etiopathologic differences, and the current manuscript succinctly describes the latest research findings in this regard. A review of the most pertinent literature reveals that the bipolar diathesis is a much more severe condition and is difficult to diagnose as it tends to masquerade in myriad forms. Since current treatments are palliative rather than curative in nature, there is an urgent need to foster a better understanding of the underpinning pathogenic mechanisms and discover novel therapies so that the suffering of innumerable people afflicted by these ailments can be decreased.


Bipolar disorder Major depressive disorder Gene x environment disorders Gene sets Sterile inflammation Atypical antipsychotics 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Islamic International Medical CollegeRiphah International UniversityRawalpindiPakistan

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