Advertisement

Burnout Syndrome and Depression

  • Renzo Bianchi
  • Irvin Sam Schonfeld
  • Eric Laurent
Chapter

Abstract

The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of the burnout syndrome, a condition initially described in psychology in the mid-1970s. We start by depicting the pioneering phase of burnout research that led to the introduction of the burnout construct in the scientific literature. We then describe the shift from initial exploratory and mainly qualitative research on burnout to more systematic, quantitative research on the syndrome. Finally, we summarize the most recent findings pertaining to the characterization of the burnout syndrome. These findings compellingly suggest that the syndrome referred to as burnout is depressive in nature. Overall, the case of the burnout syndrome highlights the need for more conceptual parsimony and theoretical integration in psychology and psychiatry and calls for enhanced transdisciplinary communication in the fields of stress and depression research.

Keywords

Burnout Construct proliferation Depression Diagnosis Methodology Nosology Unresolvable stress 

References

  1. Abramson LY, Metalsky GI, Alloy LB. Hopelessness depression: a theory-based subtype of depression. Psychol Rev. 1989;96(2):358–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adler NE, Stewart J. The biology of disadvantage: socioeconomic status and health, vol. 1186. New York: Wiley; 2010.Google Scholar
  3. Ahola K, Honkonen T, Isometsä E, Kalimo R, Nykyri E, Aromaa A, Lönnqvist J. The relationship between job-related burnout and depressive disorders—results from the Finnish health 2000 study. J Affect Disord. 2005;88(1):55–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahola K, Väänänen A, Koskinen A, Kouvonen A, Shirom A (2010). Burnout as a predictor of all-cause mortality among industrial employees: a 10-year prospective register-linkage study. J Psychosom Res. 69(1), 51–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ahola K, Hakanen J, Perhoniemi R, Mutanen P. Relationship between burnout and depressive symptoms: a study using the person-centred approach. Burn Res. 2014;1(1):29–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Washington: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.Google Scholar
  7. Bale TL, Epperson CN. Sex differences and stress across the lifespan. Nat Neurosci. 2015;18(10):1413–20.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beard GM. Neurasthenia, or nervous exhaustion. Boston Med Surg J. 1869;3(13):217–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beck AT, Alford BA. Depression: causes and treatment. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press; 2009.Google Scholar
  10. Bianchi R. What is “severe burnout” and can its prevalence be assessed? Intensive Care Med. 2015;41(1):166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bianchi R, Brisson R. Burnout and depression: causal attributions and construct overlap. J Health Psychol. In press.Google Scholar
  12. Bianchi R, Schonfeld IS. Burnout is associated with a depressive cognitive style. Pers Individ Dif. 2016;100:1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bianchi R, Boffy C, Hingray C, Truchot D, Laurent E. Comparative symptomatology of burnout and depression. J Health Psychol. 2013;18(6):782–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bianchi R, Schonfeld IS, Laurent E. Is burnout a depressive disorder? A re-examination with special focus on atypical depression. Int J Stress Manag. 2014;21(4):307–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bianchi R, Schonfeld IS, Laurent E. Burnout: absence of binding diagnostic criteria hampers prevalence estimates. Int J Nurs Stud. 2015a;52(3):789–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bianchi R, Schonfeld IS, Laurent E. Burnout-depression overlap: a review. Clin Psychol Rev. 2015b;36:28–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bianchi R, Schonfeld IS, Laurent E. Is burnout separable from depression in cluster analysis? A longitudinal study. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2015c;50(6):1005–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bianchi R, Schonfeld IS, Laurent E. Is it time to consider the “burnout syndrome” a distinct illness? Front Public Health. 2015d;3:158.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bianchi R, Schonfeld IS, Laurent E. The “burnout” construct: an inhibitor of public health action? Crit Care Med. 2016a;44(12):e1252–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bianchi R, Schonfeld IS, Laurent E. The dead end of current research on burnout prevalence. J Am Coll Surg. 2016b;223(2):424–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bianchi R, Schonfeld IS, Mayor E, Laurent E. Burnout-depression overlap: a study of New Zealand schoolteachers. N Z J Psychol. 2016c;45:4–11.Google Scholar
  22. Bianchi R, Verkuilen J, Brisson R, Schonfeld IS, Laurent E. Burnout and depression: label-related stigma, help-seeking, and syndrome overlap. Psychiatry Res. 2016d;245:91–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bianchi R, Schonfeld IS, Laurent E. Burnout symptoms: depressive manifestations under psychosocial labels? Asia Pac Psychiatry. 2017a;9(3). https://doi.org/10.1111/appy.12280 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bianchi R, Schonfeld IS, Laurent E. Burnout: moving beyond the status quo. Int J Stress Manag. In press.Google Scholar
  25. Bianchi R, Schonfeld IS, Laurent E. Physician burnout is better conceptualized as depression. Lancet. 2017c;389(10077):1397–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bianchi R, Schonfeld IS, Vandel P, Laurent E. On the depressive nature of the “burnout syndrome”: a clarification. Eur Psychiatry. 2017d;41:109–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bogdan R, Pizzagalli DA. Acute stress reduces reward responsiveness: implications for depression. Biol Psychiatry. 2006;60(10):1147–54.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Brisson R, Bianchi R. On the inconsistency of burnout conceptualization and measurement. J Am Coll Surg. 2017a;224(1):87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Brisson R, Bianchi R. Stranger things: on the upside down world of burnout research. Acad Psychiatry. 2017b;41(2):200–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Brown GW, Harris T (1978). Social origins of depression: a study of psychiatric disorder in women. New York, NY:Free Press.Google Scholar
  31. Chesney E, Goodwin GM, Fazel S. Risks of all-cause and suicide mortality in mental disorders: a meta-review. World Psychiatry. 2014;13(2):153–60.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cole MS, Walter F, Bedeian AG, O’Boyle EH. Job burnout and employee engagement: a meta-analytic examination of construct proliferation. J Manag. 2012;38(5):1550–81.Google Scholar
  33. Cox T, Tisserand M, Taris T. The conceptualization and measurement of burnout: questions and directions. Work Stress. 2005;19(3):187–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cuthbert BN, Insel TR. Toward the future of psychiatric diagnosis: the seven pillars of RDoC. BMC Med. 2013;11:126.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Demerouti E, Bakker AB, Nachreiner F, Schaufeli WB. The job demands-resources model of burnout. J Appl Psychol. 2001;86(3):499–512.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dombrovski AY, Szanto K, Clark L, Reynolds CF, Siegle GJ. Reward signals, attempted suicide, and impulsivity in late-life depression. JAMA Psychiat. 2013;70(10):1020–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Doulougeri K, Georganta K, Montgomery A, Lee A. “Diagnosing” burnout among healthcare professionals: can we find consensus? Cogent Med. 2016;3(1):1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Epstein RM, Privitera MR. Doing something about physician burnout. Lancet. 2016;388(10057):2216–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Faragher EB, Cass M, Cooper CL (2005). The relationship between job satisfaction and health: a metaanalysis. Occup Environ Med. 62(2);105–112.Google Scholar
  40. Freudenberger HJ. Staff burnout. J Soc Issues. 1974;30(1):159–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Freudenberger HJ. The staff burnout syndrome in alternative institutions. Psychother Theory Res Pract. 1975;12(1):72–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Freudenberger HJ, Richelson G. Burnout: how to beat the high cost of success. New York: Bantam Books; 1980.Google Scholar
  43. Fried EI, Nesse RM, Guille C, Sen S. The differential influence of life stress on individual symptoms of depression. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2015;131(6):465–71.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gamma A, Angst J, Ajdacic V, Eich D, Rössler W. The spectra of neurasthenia and depression: course, stability and transitions. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2007;257(2):120–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gilbert P. Evolution and depression: issues and implications. Psychol Med. 2006;36(3):287–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gilman SE, Kawachi I, Fitzmaurice GM, Buka SL. Socioeconomic status in childhood and the lifetime risk of major depression. Int J Epidemiol. 2002;31(2):359–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gold PW, Chrousos GP. Organization of the stress system and its dysregulation in melancholic and atypical depression: high vs low CRH/NE states. Mol Psychiatry. 2002;7(3):254–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Goldstein DS, Kopin IJ. Evolution of concepts of stress. Stress. 2007;10(2):109–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hakanen JJ, Bakker AB. Born and bred to burn out: a life-course view and reflections on job burnout. J Occup Health Psychol. 2017;22(3):354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Halbesleben JRB, Demerouti E. The construct validity of an alternative measure of burnout: investigating the English translation of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory. Work Stress. 2005;19(3):208–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Heifetz LJ, Bersani HA. Disrupting the pursuit of personal growth: toward a unified theory of burnout in the human services. In: Farber BA, editor. Stress and burnout in the human services professions. New York: Pergamon; 1983. p. 46–62.Google Scholar
  52. Iacovides A, Fountoulakis KN, Kaprinis S, Kaprinis G. The relationship between job stress, burnout and clinical depression. J Affect Disord. 2003;75(3):209–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Judd LL, Schettler PJ, Coryell W, Akiskal HS, Fiedorowicz JG. Overt irritability/anger in unipolar major depressive episodes: past and current characteristics and implications for long-term course. JAMA Psychiat. 2013;70(11):1171–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kahn JP. Diagnosis and referral of workplace depression. J Occup Environ Med. 2008;50(4):396–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kleijweg JH, Verbraak MJ, Van Dijk MK. The clinical utility of the Maslach Burnout Inventory in a clinical population. Psychol Assess. 2013;25(2):435–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Klinger E. Consequences of commitment to and disengagement from incentives. Psychol Rev. 1975;82(1):1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Koenig JI, Walker CD, Romeo RD, Lupien SJ. Effects of stress across the lifespan. Stress. 2011;14(5):475–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kotov R, Krueger RF, Watson D, Achenbach TM, Althoff RR, Bagby RM, Brown TA, Carpenter WT, Caspi A, Clark LA, Eaton NR, Forbes MK, Forbush KT, Goldberg D, Hasin D, Hyman SE, Ivanova MY, Lynam DR, Markon K, Miller JD, Moffitt TE, Morey LC, Mullins-Sweatt SN, Ormel J, Patrick CJ, Regier DA, Rescorla L, Ruggero CJ, Samuel DB, Sellbom M, Simms LJ, Skodol AE, Slade T, South SC, Tackett JL, Waldman ID, Waszczuk MA, Widiger TA, Wright AG, Zimmerman M. The hierarchical taxonomy of psychopathology (HiTOP): a dimensional alternative to traditional nosologies. J Abnorm Psychol. 2017;126(4):454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kristensen TS, Borritz M, Villadsen E, Christensen KB. The Copenhagen Burnout Inventory: a new tool for the assessment of burnout. Work Stress. 2005;19(3):192–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kroenke K, Spitzer RL. The PHQ-9: a new depression diagnostic and severity measure. Psychiatr Ann. 2002;32(9):509–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kung S, Alarcon RD, Williams MD, Poppe KA, Jo Moore M, Frye MA. Comparing the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) depression measures in an integrated mood disorders practice. J Affect Disord. 2013;145(3):341–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Laborit H. L’inhibition de l’action. 2nd ed. Paris: Masson; 1986.Google Scholar
  63. Laborit H. Inhibition of action: an interdisciplinary approach to its mechanism and psychopathology. In: Traue HC, Pennebaker JW, editors. Emotion inhibition and health. Kirkland: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers; 1993. p. 57–79.Google Scholar
  64. Lamers F, Vogelzangs N, Merikangas KR, de Jonge P, Beekman ATF, Penninx BWJH. Evidence for a differential role of HPA-axis function, inflammation and metabolic syndrome in melancholic versus atypical depression. Mol Psychiatry. 2013;18(6):692–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Larsen AC, Ulleberg P, Rønnestad MH. Depersonalization reconsidered: an empirical analysis of the relation between depersonalization and cynicism in an extended version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Nord Psychol. 2017;69(3):160–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Le H, Schmidt FL, Harter JK, Lauver KJ. The problem of empirical redundancy of constructs in organizational research: an empirical investigation. Organ Behav Hum Decis Process. 2010;112(2):112–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Leiter MP, Durup J. The discriminant validity of burnout and depression: a confirmatory factor analytic study. Anxiety Stress Coping. 1994;7(4):357–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Leiter MP, Maslach C. Banishing burnout: six strategies for improving your relationship with work. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 2005.Google Scholar
  69. Leiter MP, Maslach C. Latent burnout profiles: a new approach to understanding the burnout experience. Burn Res. 2016;3(4):89–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lorant V, Deliège D, Eaton W, Robert A, Philippot P, Ansseau M. Socioeconomic inequalities in depression: a meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 2003;157(2):98–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lorant V, Croux C, Weich S, Deliège D, Mackenbach J, Ansseau M. Depression and socio-economic risk factors: 7-year longitudinal population study. Br J Psychiatry. 2007;190(4):293–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Luteijn F, Bouman TK. The concepts of depression, anxiety, and neuroticism in questionnaires. Eur J Pers. 1988;2(2):113–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Maslach C. Burned-out. Hum Behav. 1976;5(9):16–22.Google Scholar
  74. Maslach C, Jackson SE. The measurement of experienced burnout. J Organ Behav. 1981;2(2):99–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Maslach C, Leiter MP. The truth about burnout: how organizations cause personal stress and what to do about it. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 1997.Google Scholar
  76. Maslach C, Leiter MP. Understanding the burnout experience: recent research and its implications for psychiatry. World Psychiatry. 2016;15(2):103–11.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Maslach C, Pines A. The burn-out syndrome in the day care setting. Child Youth Care Forum. 1977;6(2):100–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Maslach C, Jackson SE, Leiter MP. Maslach Burnout Inventory manual. 3rd ed. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press; 1996.Google Scholar
  79. Maslach C, Schaufeli WB, Leiter MP. Job burnout. Annu Rev Psychol. 2001;52(1):397–422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Maslach C, Leiter MP. Burnout. In: Fink G, editor. Stress consequences: mental, neuropsychological and socioeconomic. New York: Academic Press; 2010. p. 726–729.Google Scholar
  81. Maslach C, Jackson SE, Leiter MP. Maslach Burnout Inventory manual. 4th ed. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press; 2016.Google Scholar
  82. McEwen BS. Protection and damage from acute and chronic stress: allostasis and allostatic overload and relevance to the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004;1032:1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Meier ST. The construct validity of burnout. J Occup Psychol. 1984;57(3):211–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Nesse RM. Is depression an adaptation? Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000;57(1):14–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Niedhammer I, Malard L, Chastang JF. Occupational factors and subsequent major depressive and generalized anxiety disorders in the prospective French national SIP study. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:200.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Orosz A, Federspiel A, Haisch S, Seeher C, Dierks T, Cattapan K. A biological perspective on differences and similarities between burnout and depression. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2017;73:112–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Peterson C, Maier SF, Seligman MEP. Learned helplessness: a theory for the age of personal control. New York: Oxford University Press; 1993.Google Scholar
  88. Pickles A, Angold A (2003). Natural categories or fundamental dimensions: on carving nature at the joints and the rearticulation of psychopathology. Dev Psychopathol. 15(3), 529–551.Google Scholar
  89. Pines A, Aronson E. Career burnout: causes and cures. New York: Free Press; 1988.Google Scholar
  90. Pines A, Maslach C. Characteristics of staff burnout in mental-health settings. Hosp Community Psychiatry. 1978;29(4):233–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Pines A, Aronson E, Kafry D. Burnout: from tedium to personal growth. New York: Free Press; 1981.Google Scholar
  92. Pizzagalli DA. Depression, stress, and anhedonia: toward a synthesis and integrated model. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2014;10:393–423.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Pryce CR, Azzinnari D, Spinelli S, Seifritz E, Tegethoff M, Meinlschmidt G. Helplessness: a systematic translational review of theory and evidence for its relevance to understanding and treating depression. Pharmacol Ther. 2011;132(3):242–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Ritsher JEB, Warner V, Johnson JG, Dohrenwend BP. Inter-generational longitudinal study of social class and depression: a test of social causation and social selection models. Br J Psychiatry. 2001;178(40):s84–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Rolls ET (2016). A non-reward attractor theory of depression. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 68;47–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Rose A, Duschinsky R, Macnaughton J. Cynicism as a strategic virtue. Lancet. 2017;389(10070):692–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rosenquist JN, Fowler JH, Christakis NA. Social network determinants of depression. Mol Psychiatry. 2011;16(3):273–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Rössler W, Hengartner M, Ajdacic-Gross V, Angst J. Predictors of burnout: results from a prospective community study. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2015;265(1):19–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Salanova M, Llorens S, García-Renedo M, Burriel R, Bresó E, Schaufeli WB. Towards a four-dimensional model of burnout: a multigroup factor-analytic study including depersonalization and cynicism. Educ Psychol Meas. 2005;65(5):807–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sapolsky RM. Why zebras don’t get ulcers. 3rd ed. New York: Holt Paperbacks; 2004.Google Scholar
  101. Sapolsky RM. Sick of poverty. Sci Am. 2005;293(6):92–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Schaufeli WB. Past performance and future perspectives of burnout research. SA J Ind Psychol. 2003;29(4):1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Schaufeli WB. The balance of give and take: toward a social exchange model of burnout. RevInt Psychol Soc. 2006;19(1):75–119.Google Scholar
  104. Schaufeli WB, Buunk BP. Burnout: an overview of 25 years of research and theorizing. In: Schabracq MJ, Winnubst JAM, Cooper CL, editors. The handbook of work and Health Psychology. 2nd ed. Chichester: Wiley; 2004. p. 383–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Schaufeli WB, Enzmann D. The burnout companion to study and practice: a critical analysis. London: Taylor & Francis; 1998.Google Scholar
  106. Schaufeli WB, Taris TW. The conceptualization and measurement of burnout: common ground and worlds apart. Work Stress. 2005;19(3):256–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Schaufeli WB, Bakker AB, Hoogduin K, Schaap C, Kladler A. On the clinical validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the burnout measure. Psychol Health. 2001;16(5):565–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Schaufeli WB, Bakker AB, Van Rhenen W. How changes in job demands and resources predict burnout, work engagement, and sickness absenteeism. J Organ Behav. 2009a;30(7):893–917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Schaufeli WB, Leiter MP, Maslach C. Burnout: 35 years of research and practice. Career Dev Int. 2009b;14(3):204–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Schmidt F. Detecting and correcting the lies that data tell. Perspect Psychol Sci. 2010;5(3):233–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Schonfeld IS. Burnout in teachers: is it burnout or is it depression? (report no. 335329). Washington: Education Resources Information Center; 1991.Google Scholar
  112. Schonfeld IS, Bianchi R. Burnout and depression: two entities or one? J Clin Psychol. 2016;72(1):22–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Schonfeld IS, Chang C-H. Occupational health psychology: work, stress, and health. New York: Springer; 2017.Google Scholar
  114. Schonfeld IS, Verkuilen J, Bianchi R. Confirmatory factor analysis of burnout and depressive symptoms. In: 12th international conference on occupational stress and health, June 7–10, Minneapolis; 2017.Google Scholar
  115. Seidler A, Thinschmidt M, Deckert S, Then F, Hegewald J, Nieuwenhuijsen K, Riedel-Heller SG. The role of psychosocial working conditions on burnout and its core component emotional exhaustion – a systematic review. J Occup Med Toxicol. 2014;9:10.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Shah J, Mizrahi R, McKenzie K. The four dimensions: a model for the social aetiology of psychosis. Br J Psychiatry. 2011;199(1):11–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Shanafelt TD, Dyrbye LN, West CP. Addressing physician burnout: the way forward. JAMA. 2017;317(9):901–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Shirom A. Job-related burnout: a review. In: Quick JC, Tetrick LE, editors. Handbook of occupational health psychology. Washington: American Psychological Association; 2003. p. 245–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Shirom A. Reflections on the study of burnout. Work Stress. 2005;19(3):263–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Shirom A, Melamed S. A comparison of the construct validity of two burnout measures in two groups of professionals. Int J Stress Manag. 2006;13(2):176–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Siegrist J. Adverse health effects of high-effort/low-reward conditions. J Occup Health Psychol. 1996;1(1):27–41.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. Swider BW, Zimmerman RD. Born to burnout: a meta-analytic path model of personality, job burnout, and work outcomes. J Vocat Behav. 2010;76(3):487–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Taris TW. Is there a relationship between burnout and objective performance? A critical review of 16 studies. Work Stress. 2006;20(4):316–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Toker S, Biron M. Job burnout and depression: unraveling their temporal relationship and considering the role of physical activity. J Appl Psychol. 2012;97(3):699–710.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Toker S, Melamed S, Berliner S, Zeltser D, Shapira I (2012). Burnout and risk of coronary heart disease: a prospective study of 8838 employees. Psychosom Med. 74(8), 840–847.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Toker S, Shapira I, Berliner S, Melamed S, Shirom A. The association between burnout, depression, anxiety, and inflammation biomarkers: C-reactive protein and fibrinogen in men and women. J Occup Health Psychol. 2005;10(4):344–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. van Deusen EH. Observations on a form of nervous prostration (neurasthenia), culminating in insanity. Am J Insanit. 1869;25(4):445–61.Google Scholar
  128. Veil C. Les états d’épuisement. “Primum non nocere”. Concours Med. 1959;23:2675–81.Google Scholar
  129. Wang J. Work stress as a risk factor for major depressive episode(s). Psychol Med. 2005;35:865–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Weber A, Jaekel-Reinhard A. Burnout syndrome: a disease of modern societies? Occup Med (Lond). 2000;50(7):512–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. West CP, Dyrbye LN, Erwin PJ, Shanafelt TD. Interventions to prevent and reduce physician burnout: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2016;388(10057):2272–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Wicks S, Hjern A, Dalman C. Social risk or genetic liability for psychosis? A study of children born in Sweden and reared by adoptive parents. Am J Psychiatry. 2010;167(10):1240–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Willner P, Scheel-Krüger J, Belzung C. The neurobiology of depression and antidepressant action. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013;37(10 Pt 1):2331–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Winer ES, Nadorff MR, Ellis TE, Allen JG, Herrera S, Salem T. Anhedonia predicts suicidal ideation in a large psychiatric inpatient sample. Psychiatry Res. 2014;218(1–2):124–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Wojciechowski FL, Strik JJMH, Falger P, Lousberg R, Honig A. The relationship between depressive and vital exhaustion symptomatology post-myocardial infarction. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2000;102(5):359–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. World Health Organization. International classification of diseases. 10th ed. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016.Google Scholar
  137. Wu H, Mata J, Furman DJ, Whitmer AJ, Gotlib IH, Thompson RJ. Anticipatory and consummatory pleasure and displeasure in major depressive disorder: an experience sampling study. J Abnorm Psychol. 2017;126(2):149–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Wurm W, Vogel K, Holl A, Ebner C, Bayer D, Morkl S, Szilagyi IS, Hotter E, Kapfhammer HP, Hofmann P. Depression-burnout overlap in physicians. PLoS One. 2016;11(3):e0149913.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Renzo Bianchi
    • 1
  • Irvin Sam Schonfeld
    • 2
  • Eric Laurent
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Work and Organizational PsychologyUniversity of NeuchâtelNeuchâtelSwitzerland
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyThe City College of the City University of New YorkNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Laboratory of Psychology (EA 3188)Bourgogne Franche-Comté UniversityBesançonFrance

Personalised recommendations