Coral Disease in Japan

Chapter
Part of the Coral Reefs of the World book series (CORW, volume 13)

Abstract

While 40 different coral diseases have been described globally since the first report in 1973, the causative agents for most cases have yet to be identified. In Japan, a total of ten coral diseases, including black band disease, brown band disease, white syndrome, pigmentation response, and growth anomalies have been confirmed in the field by epidemiological surveys and monitoring projects. However, disease-induced coral mortality has yet to be reported. A national government-based monitoring project for coral reef conservation has recorded the three major diseases (black band disease, white syndrome, and growth anomalies) in ten areas (Kushimoto, Shikoku, Amakusa, Yakushima, Chichijima, Setouchi, Kerama, Miyako, Ishigaki, and Sekisei Lagoon/Iriomote) of Japan since 2003. Furthermore, a substantial number of studies have contributed to the understanding of coral diseases, identifying ten additional diseases in six coral genera, including a new disease discovered in the temperate coral Turbinaria peltata in 2009. In order to elucidate the causative mechanism of coral disease, researchers have utilized a variety of approaches including lipid measurements, molecular technique, and new histopathology methods. However, despite the efforts, further research is required to fully understand the mechanism and impacts of coral disease. This chapter summarizes current knowledge on coral pathogens and discusses the future of coral disease research in Japan.

Keywords

Coral disease Black band disease Growth anomalies White syndrome White spot syndrome 

References

  1. Ainsworth TD, Kramasky-Winter E, Loya Y et al (2007) Coral disease diagnostics: what’s between a plague and a band? Appl Environ Microbiol 73:981–992. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02172-06 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Antonius A (1973) New observations on coral destruction in reefs. 10th Meeting of the Association of Island Marine Laboratories of the Caribbean, University of Puerto Rico (Mayaguez)Google Scholar
  3. Antonius A (1977) Coral mortality in reefs: a problem for science and management. Miami, pp 617–623Google Scholar
  4. Antonius A (1999) Halofolliculina corallasia, a new coral-killing ciliate on Indo-Pacific reefs. Coral Reefs 18:300–300. https://doi.org/10.1007/s003380050199 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Antonius AA, Lipscomb D (2000) First protozoan coral-killer identified in the Indo-Pacific. Atoll Res Bull 481:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aronson RB, Precht WF (2001) White-band disease and the changing face of Caribbean coral reefs. In: Porter JW (ed) The ecology and etiology of newly emerging marine diseases. Springer, Netherlands, pp 25–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Asoh K (2008) Loss of live tissue and exposure of coral skeleton in Porites cylindrica at Shiraho, Ishigaki Island, Japan. Galaxea J Coral Reef Stud 10:45–45. https://doi.org/10.3755/galaxea.10.45 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Asoh K (2009) Recovery of Porites cylindrica from the 2007-summer tissue loss at Shiraho, Ishigaki Island, Japan. Galaxea J Coral Reef Stud 11:27–32. https://doi.org/10.3755/galaxea.11.27 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bak RPM (1983) Neoplasia, regeneration and growth in the reef-building coral Acropora palmata. Mar Biol 77:221–227. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00395810 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bellwood DR, Hughes TP, Folke C, Nyström M (2004) Confronting the coral reef crisis. Nature 429:827–833. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02691 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ben-Haim Y, Rosenberg E (2002) A novel Vibrio sp. pathogen of the coral Pocillopora damicornis. Mar Biol 141:47–55. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-002-0797-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ben-Haim Y, Zicherman-Keren M (2003) Temperature-regulated bleaching and lysis of the coral Pocillopora damicornis by the novel pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus. Appl Environ Microbiol 69:4236–4242. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.69.7.4236 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Biodiversity Center of Japan (2003) The annual report of the “Monitoring Sites 1000” in Japan: coral reefs. Biodiversity Center of Japan, Ministry of the Environment of Japan, Japan. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  14. Biodiversity Center of Japan (2004) The annual report of the “Monitoring Sites 1000” in Japan: coral reefs. Biodiversity Center of Japan, Ministry of the Environment of Japan, Japan. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  15. Biodiversity Center of Japan (2005) The annual report of the “Monitoring Sites 1000” in Japan: coral reefs. Biodiversity Center of Japan, Ministry of the Environment of Japan, Japan. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  16. Biodiversity Center of Japan (2006) The annual report of the “Monitoring Sites 1000” in Japan: coral reefs. Biodiversity Center of Japan, Ministry of the Environment of Japan, Japan. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  17. Biodiversity Center of Japan (2007) The annual report of the “Monitoring Sites 1000” in Japan: coral reefs. Biodiversity Center of Japan, Ministry of the Environment of Japan, Japan. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  18. Biodiversity Center of Japan (2008) The annual report of the “Monitoring Sites 1000” in Japan: coral reefs. Biodiversity Center of Japan, Ministry of the Environment of Japan, Japan. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  19. Biodiversity Center of Japan (2009) The annual report of the “Monitoring Sites 1000” in Japan: coral reefs. Biodiversity Center of Japan, Ministry of the Environment of Japan, Japan. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  20. Biodiversity Center of Japan (2010) The annual report of the “Monitoring Sites 1000” in Japan: coral reefs. Biodiversity Center of Japan, Ministry of the Environment of Japan, Japan. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  21. Biodiversity Center of Japan (2011) The annual report of the “Monitoring Sites 1000” in Japan: coral reefs. Biodiversity Center of Japan, Ministry of the Environment of Japan, Japan. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  22. Biodiversity Center of Japan (2012) The annual report of the “Monitoring Sites 1000” in Japan: coral reefs. Biodiversity Center of Japan, Ministry of the Environment of Japan, Japan. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  23. Biodiversity Center of Japan (2013) The annual report of the “Monitoring Sites 1000” in Japan: coral reefs. Biodiversity Center of Japan, Ministry of the Environment of Japan, Japan. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  24. Biodiversity Center of Japan (2014) The annual report of the “Monitoring Sites 1000” in Japan: coral reefs. Biodiversity Center of Japan, Ministry of the Environment of Japan, Japan. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  25. Borneman E (2001) Aquarium corals: selection, husbandry, and natural history. Microcosm Limited, Neptune CityGoogle Scholar
  26. Bourne DG, Garren M, Work TM et al (2009) Microbial disease and the coral holobiont. Trends Microbiol 17:554–562. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2009.09.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bourne DG, Muirhead A, Sato Y (2011) Changes in sulfate-reducing bacterial populations during the onset of black band disease. ISME J 5:559–564. https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2010.143 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bourne DG, Ainsworth TD, Pollock FJ, Willis BL (2014) Towards a better understanding of white syndromes and their causes on Indo-Pacific coral reefs. Coral Reefs 34:233–242. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00338-014-1239-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bruckner AW (2015) History of coral disease research. In: Woodley CM, Downs CA, Bruckner AW et al (eds) Diseases of coral. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 52–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bruno JF, Selig ER (2007) Regional decline of coral cover in the Indo-Pacific: timing, extent, and subregional comparisons. PLoS One 2:e711–e711. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000711 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Carpenter KE, Abrar M, Aeby G et al (2008) One-third of reef-building corals face elevated extinction risk from climate change and local impacts. Science 321:560–563. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1159196 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Denner EBM, Smith GW, Busse HJ et al (2003) Aurantimonas coralicida gen. nov., sp. nov., the causative agent of white plague type II on Caribbean scleractinian corals. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53:1115–1122. https://doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.02359-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dustan P (1977) Vitality of reef coral populations off key largo, Florida: recruitment and mortality. Environ Geol 2:51–58. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02430665 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dustan P (1999) Coral reefs under stress: sources of mortality in the Florida keys. Nat Resour Forum 23:147–155Google Scholar
  35. Eguchi M, Ishida Y (1990) Oligotrophic properties of heterotrophic bacteria and in situ heterotrophic activity in pelagic seawater. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 6:23–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. English S, Baker V (1994) Survey manual for tropical marine resources. Townsv Aust Inst Mar Sci 390:390–390Google Scholar
  37. Ferguson RL, Buckley E, Palumbo A (1984) Response of marine bacterioplankton to differential filtration and confinement. Appl Environ Microbiol 47:49–55Google Scholar
  38. Foley JE, Sokolow SH, Girvetz E et al (2005) Spatial epidemiology of Caribbean yellow band syndrome in Montastrea spp. coral in the Eastern Yucatan, Mexico. Hydrobiologia 548:33–40. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-005-3619-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Garzón-Ferreira J, Gil-Agudelo DL, Barrios LM, Zea S (2001) Stony coral diseases observed in southwestern Caribbean reefs. In: Porter JW (ed) The ecology and etiology of newly emerging marine diseases. Springer, Netherlands, pp 65–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Geiser DM, Taylor JW, Ritchie KB, Smith GW (1998) Cause of sea fan death in the West Indies. Nature 394:137–138. https://doi.org/10.1038/28079 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gladfelter WB (1982) White-band disease in Acropora palmata: implications for the structure and growth of shallow reefs. Bull Mar Sci 32:639–643Google Scholar
  42. Gladfelter EH (1983) Circulation of fluids in the gastrovascular system of the reef coral Acropora cervicornis. Biol Bull 165:619–636. https://doi.org/10.2307/1541469 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Glas MS, Sato Y, Ulstrup KE, Bourne DG (2012) Biogeochemical conditions determine virulence of black band disease in corals. ISME J 6:1526–1534. https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2012.2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Grimes DJ (2006) Koch’s postulates-then and now. Microbe-Am Soc Microbiol 1:223Google Scholar
  45. Harii S, Hongo C, Ishihara M et al (2014) Impacts of multiple disturbances on coral communities at Ishigaki Island, Okinawa, Japan, during a 15-year survey. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 509:171–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Harvell CD, Kim K, Burkholder JM et al (1999) Emerging marine diseases – climate links and anthropogenic factors. Science 285:1505–1510. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.285.5433.1505 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Harvell CD, Mitchell CE, Ward JR et al (2002) Climate warming and disease risks for terrestrial and marine biota. Science 296:2158–2162. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1063699 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Harvell D, Jordán-Dahlgren E, Merkel S et al (2007) Coral disease, environmental drivers, and the balance between coral and microbial associates. Oceanography 20:172–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hoegh-Guldberg O (2011) Coral reef ecosystems and anthropogenic climate change. Reg Environ Chang 11:215–227. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-010-0189-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Holden C (1996) Coral disease hot spot in the Florida keys. Science:5295–5295Google Scholar
  51. Hongo C, Yamano H (2013) Species-specific responses of corals to bleaching events on anthropogenically turbid reefs on Okinawa Island, Japan, over a 15-year period (1995–2009). PLoS One 8:e60952. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060952 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hughes TP, Baird AH, Bellwood DR et al (2003) Climate change, human impacts, and the resilience of coral reefs. Science 301:929–933. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1085046 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Irikawa A, Casareto BE, Suzuki Y et al (2011) Growth anomalies on Acropora cytherea corals. Mar Pollut Bull 62:1702–1707. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.05.033 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Jolles AE, Sullivan P, Alker AP, Harvell CD (2002) Disease transmission of aspergillosis in sea fans: inferring process from spatial pattern. Ecology 83:2373–2378.  https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2002)083[2373:DTOAIS]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kaczmarsky L, Richardson LL (2007) Transmission of growth anomalies between Indo-Pacific Porites corals. J Invertebr Pathol 94:218–221. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jip.2006.11.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kayanne H, Harii S, Ide Y, Akimoto F (2002) Recovery of coral populations after the 1998 bleaching on Shiraho Reef, in the southern Ryukyus, NW Pacific. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 239:93–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Koch R (1884) Die Aetiologie der Tuberkulose. Klin Wochenschr 2:1–88. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01765224 Google Scholar
  58. Kogure K, Simidu U, Taga N (1980) Distribution of viable marine bacteria in neritic seawater around Japan. Can J Microbiol 26:318–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Korrubel JL, Riegl B (1998) A new coral disease from the southern Arabian Gulf. Coral Reefs 17:22–22. https://doi.org/10.1007/s003380050088 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kushmaro A, Rosenberg E, Fine M, Loya Y (1997) Bleaching of the coral Oculina patagonica by Vibrio AK-1. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 147:159–165. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps147159 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kushmaro A, Banin E, Loya Y et al (2001) Vibrio shiloi sp. nov., the causative agent of bleaching of the coral Oculina patagonica. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:1383–1388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kuta K, Richardson L (1996) Abundance and distribution of black band disease on coral reefs in the northern Florida Keys. Coral Reefs:219–223Google Scholar
  63. Lesser MP, Bythell JC, Gates RD et al (2007) Are infectious diseases really killing corals? Alternative interpretations of the experimental and ecological data. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 346:36–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2007.02.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lowenstam HA, Weiner S (1989) On biomineralization. Oxford University Press, Oxford, p 324Google Scholar
  65. Loya Y, Sakai K, Nakano Y, Woesik RV (2001) Coral bleaching: the winners and the losers. Ecol Lett 4:122–131. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1461-0248.2001.00203.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lozada-Misa P, Kerr A, Raymundo L (2015) Contrasting lesion dynamics of white syndrome among the scleractinian corals Porites spp. PLoS One 10:e0129841. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129841 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Luna GM, Biavasco F, Danovaro R (2007) Bacteria associated with the rapid tissue necrosis of stony corals. Environ Microbiol 9:1851–1857. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-2920.2007.01287.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Matthew S, Salvador LA, Schupp PJ et al (2010) Cytotoxic halogenated macrolides and modified peptides from the apratoxin-producing marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya bouillonii from Guam. J Nat Prod 73:1544–1552. https://doi.org/10.1021/np1004032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Maynard J, van Hooidonk R, Eakin CM et al (2015) Projections of climate conditions that increase coral disease susceptibility and pathogen abundance and virulence. Nat Clim Chang. https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2625
  70. Nishihira M (2004) Hermatypic corals of Japan. In: Tsuchiya M, Nadaoka K, Kayanne H, Yamano H (eds) Coral reefs of Japan. Ministry of the Environment and Japanese Coral Reef Society, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  71. Nomura K (2004) Appendix 3 spot check method for coral reef monitoring. In: Tsuchiya M, Nadaoka K, Kayanne H, Yamano H (eds) Coral reefs of Japan. Ministry of the Environment and Japanese Coral Reef Society, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  72. Okinawa Prefectural Government (2009) Report on the coral reef resources information preparation program. Nature Conservation Division, Department of Environmental Affairs, Okinawa Prefuctural Government, Japan. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  73. Okinawa Prefectural Government (2010) Report on the coral reef resources information preparation program. Nature Conservation Division, Department of Environmental Affairs, Okinawa Prefectural Government, Japan. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  74. Okinawa Prefectural Government (2011) Report on the coral reef resources information preparation program. Nature Conservation Division, Department of Environmental Affairs, Okinawa Prefectural Government, Japan. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  75. Osborne K, Dolman AM, Burgess SC, Johns KA (2011) Disturbance and the dynamics of coral cover on the great barrier reef (1995–2009). PLoS One. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017516
  76. Palmer CV, Mydlarz LD, Willis BL (2008) Evidence of an inflammatory-like response in non-normally pigmented tissues of two scleractinian corals. Proc Biol Sci 275:2687–2693. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2008.0335 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Patterson KL, Porter JW, Ritchie KB et al (2002) The etiology of white pox, a lethal disease of the Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:8725–8730. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.092260099 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Peters EC, Gassman NJ, Firman JC et al (1997) Ecotoxicology of tropical marine ecosystems. Environ Toxicol Chem 16:12–40. https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.5620160103 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Pollock FJ, Morris PJ, Willis BL, Bourne DG (2011) The urgent need for robust coral disease diagnostics. PLoS Pathog 7:e1002183. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002183 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Porter J, Dustan P, Jaap W, Patterson K (2001) Patterns of spread of coral disease in the Florida keys. Hydrobiologia:1–24Google Scholar
  81. Ravindran J, Raghukumar C (2002) Pink line syndrome (PLS) in the scleractinian coral Porites lutea. Coral Reefs 21:252–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Raymundo LJH, Harvell CD, Reynolds TL (2003) Porites ulcerative white spot disease: description, prevalence, and host range of a new coral disease affecting Indo-Pacific reefs. Dis Aquat Org 56:95–104. https://doi.org/10.3354/dao056095 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Raymundo LJ, Couch CS, Bruckner AW, Harvell CD (2008) Coral disease handbook guidelines for assessment. Coral reef targeted research and capacity building for management programGoogle Scholar
  84. Reeves L (1994) Newly discovered: yellow band disease strikes keys reefs. Underw USA 11:16Google Scholar
  85. Richardson LL (2004) Black band disease. In: Rosenberg PE, Loya PY (eds) Coral health and disease. Springer Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 325–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Richardson LL, Goldberg WM, Carlton RG, Halas JC (1998) Coral disease outbreak in the Florida Keys: Plague Type II. Rev Biol Trop 46:187–198Google Scholar
  87. Richardson LL, Smith GW, Ritchie KB, Carlton RG (2001) Integrating microbiological, microsensor, molecular, and physiologic techniques in the study of coral disease pathogenesis. Methods 460:71–89. https://doi.org/10.2307/176940 Google Scholar
  88. Richardson LL, Sekar R, Myers JL et al (2007) The presence of the cyanobacterial toxin microcystin in black band disease of corals. FEMS Microbiol Lett 272:182–187. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.2007.00751.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ritchie KB, Smith GW (1998) Type II white-band disease. Rev Biol Trop 46:199–203Google Scholar
  90. Santavy DL, Peters EC (1997) Microbial pests: coral disease research in the western Atlantic. In: 8th int. coral reef symp., pp. 607–601Google Scholar
  91. Sato Y, Civiello M, Bell SC et al (2016) Integrated approach to understanding the onset and pathogenesis of black band disease in corals. Environ Microbiol 18:752–765. https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.13122 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sussman M, Bourne DG, Willis BL (2006) A single cyanobacterial ribotype is associated with both red and black bands on diseased corals from Palau. Dis Aquat Org 69:111–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Sussman M, Willis BL, Victor S, Bourne DG (2008) Coral pathogens identified for white syndrome (WS) epizootics in the indo-Pacific. PLoS One 3:e2393. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002393 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Sutherland K, Porter J, Torres C (2004) Disease and immunity in Caribbean and Indo-Pacific zooxanthellate corals. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 266:273–302. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps266273 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sweet M, Jones R, Bythell J (2012) Coral diseases in aquaria and in nature. J Mar Biol Assoc U K 92:791–801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Thompson FL, Barash Y, Sawabe T et al (2006) Thalassomonas loyana sp. nov., a causative agent of the white plague-like disease of corals on the Eilat coral reef. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56:365–368. https://doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.63800-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Wada M, Nishihara G, Isomura N (2012) Probing stony coral rapid tissue necrosis with optical oxygen sensors. In: 12th international coral reef symposium, Cairns, Queensland, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  98. Wada N, Shouhei I, Shinpei S et al (2015) Vibrio spp. isolated from scleractinian coral Acropora muricata with rapid tissue necrosis (RTN) and reared in aquarium. BioMicroWorld 2015, BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  99. Wada N, Kawamoto T, Sato Y, Mano N (2016a) A novel application of a cryosectioning technique to undecalcified coral specimens. Mar Biol 163:117. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-016-2895-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wada N, Pollock FJ, Willis BL et al (2016b) In situ visualization of bacterial populations in coral tissues: pitfalls and solutions. PeerJ 4:e2424. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.2424 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wada N, Mano N, Yanagisawa Y, Mori T (in press) Occurrence of coral diseases in Akajima, Okinawa, Japan in 2010 and 2011. GALAXEA, Jpn Coral Reef SocGoogle Scholar
  102. Weil E, Irikawa A, Casareto B, Suzuki Y (2012) Extended geographic distribution of several Indo-Pacific coral reef diseases. Dis Aquat Org 98:163–170. https://doi.org/10.3354/dao02433 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Wilkinson C (2008) Status of the coral reefs of the world: 2008. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, TownsvilleGoogle Scholar
  104. Willis BL, Page CA, Dinsdale EA (2004) Coral disease on the great barrier reef. In: Rosenberg PE, Loya PY (eds) Coral health and disease. Springer Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 69–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Woodley CM, Bruckner AW, McLenon AL et al (2008) Field manual for investigating coral disease outbreaks. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver SpringGoogle Scholar
  106. Work T, Meteyer C (2014) To understand coral disease, look at coral cells. EcoHealth 11:610–618. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10393-014-0931-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Yamashiro H (2014) Black band disease in Sesoko Island, Japan. The 3rd Asia-Pacific Coral Reef Symposium, Kenting, Pingtung, TaiwanGoogle Scholar
  108. Yamashiro H, Fukuda M (2009) White spot syndrome of Turbinaria peltata in the temperate region of Japan. Coral Reefs 28:893–893. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00338-009-0514-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Yamashiro H, Yamamoto M, van Woesik R (2000) Tumor formation on the coral Montipora informis. Dis Aquat Org 41:211–217. https://doi.org/10.3354/dao041211 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Yamashiro H, Oku H, Onaga K et al (2001) Coral tumors store reduced level of lipids. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 265:171–179. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0981(01)00333-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Yamashiro H, Isomura N, Sakai K (2014) Bloom of the cyanobacterium Moorea bouillonii on the gorgonian coral Annella reticulata in Japan. Sci Rep. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep06032
  112. Yasuda N, Hidaka M (2012) Cellular kinetics in growth anomalies of the scleractinian corals Porites australiensis and Montipora informis. Dis Aquat Org 102:1–11. https://doi.org/10.3354/dao02530 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Yasuda N, Nakano Y, Yamashiro H, Hidaka M (2012) Skeletal structure and progression of growth anomalies in Porites australiensis in Okinawa, Japan. Dis Aquat Org 97:237–247. https://doi.org/10.3354/dao02408 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Zvuloni A, Artzy-Randrup Y, Stone L et al (2009) Spatio-temporal transmission patterns of black-band disease in a coral community. PLoS One 4:e4993–e4993. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004993 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biodiversity Research CenterAcademia SinicaNangangTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Marine Science and ResourcesCollege of Bioresource Science, Nihon UniversityFujisawaJapan
  3. 3.Department of BiologyEberly College Science, Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations