Advertisement

Adsorption of Dyes

  • Sourav Mondal
  • Mihir Kumar Purkait
  • Sirshendu De
Chapter
Part of the Green Chemistry and Sustainable Technology book series (GCST)

Abstract

Adsorption is one of the most commonly used, traditional separation technologies utilized for separation. Since it is an equilibrium-governed process, the process efficiency is excellent, but the throughput is relatively low. Nevertheless, because of its simplicity, this is one of the normally used technologies for dye removal from aqueous stream. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the modeling aspects of such adsorbent-based systems which is necessary for design and implementation of the technology. Additionally, the chapter describes the characteristics of the different commonly used adsorbents and its applicability.

Keywords

Adsorbent Chrysoidine Eosin Congo red Activated charcoal 

References

  1. Akmil-Basar C, Onal Y, Kilicer T, Eren D (2005) Adsorptions of high concentration malachite green by two activated carbons having different porous structures. J Hazard Mater 127:73–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aksu Z (2001) Biosorption of reactive dyes by dried activated sludge: equilibrium and kinetic modelling. Biochem Eng J 7:79–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aksu Z (2003) Reactive dye bioaccumulation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Process Biochem 38:1437–1444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aksu Z, Donmez G (2003) A comparative study on the biosorption characteristics of some yeasts for Remazol blue reactive dye. Chemosphere 50:1075–1083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aksu Z, Tezer S (2000) Equilibrium and kinetic modelling of biosorption of Remazol black B by Rhizopus arrhizus in a batch system: effect of temperature. Process Biochem 36:431–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aksu Z, Tezer S (2005) Biosorption of reactive dyes on the green alga Chlorella Vulgaris. Process Biochem 40:1347–1361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Al-Degs Y, Khraisheh MAM, Allen SJ, Ahmad MN (2000) Effect of carbon surface chemistry on the removal of reactive dyes from textile effluent. Water Res 34:927–935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Al-Ghouti MA, Khraisheh MAM, Allen SJ, Ahmad MN (2003) The removal of dyes from textile wastewater: a study of the physical characteristics and adsorption mechanisms of diatomaceous earth. J Environ Manag 69:229–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Allen SJ, Gan Q, Matthews R, Johnson PA (2003) Comparison of optimized isotherm models for basic dye adsorption by kudzu. Bioresour Technol 88:143–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Annadurai G, Juang RS, Lee DJ (2002) Use of cellulose-based wastes for adsorption of dyes from aqueous solutions. J Hazard Mater 92:263–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Arami M, Limaee NY, Mahmoodi NM, Tabrizi NS (2006) Equilibrium and kinetics studies for the adsorption of direct and acid dyes from aqueous solution by soy meal hull. J Hazard Mater 135:171–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Asfour HM, Fadali OA, Nassar MM, EI-Geundi MS (1985) Equilibrium studies on adsorption of basic dyes on hardwood. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 35A:21–27Google Scholar
  13. Aygun A, Yenisoy-Karakas S, Duman I (2003) Production of granular activated carbon from fruit stones and nutshells and evaluation of their physical, chemical and adsorption properties. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 66:189–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bagane M, Guiza S (2000) Elimination d’un colorant des effluents de l’industrie textile par adsorption. Ann Chim Sci Mater 25:615–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Banat F, Al-Asheh S, Al-Makhadmeh L (2003) Evaluation of the use of raw and activated date pits as potential adsorbents for dye containing waters. Process Biochem 39:193–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Batzias FA, Sidiras DK (2004) Dye adsorption by calcium chloride treated beech sawdust in batch and fixed-bed systems. J Hazard Mater 114:167–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bhattacharyya KG, Sarma A (2003) Adsorption characteristics of the dye, Brilliant Green, on Neem leaf powder. Dyes Pigm 57(3):211–222Google Scholar
  18. Bohart G, Adams EQ (1920) Some aspects of the behavior of charcoal with respect to chlorine. J Am Chem Soc 42:523–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bouzaida I, Rammah MB (2002) Adsorption of acid dyes on treated cotton in a continuous system. Mater Sci Eng C 21:151–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chatzopoulos D, Verma A, Irvine RL (1993) Activated carbon adsorption and desorption of toluene in the aqueous phase. AICHE J 39:2027–2041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chen BN, Hui CW, McKay G (2001) Film-pore diffusion modeling and contact time optimization for the adsorption of dyestuffs on pith. Chem Eng J 84:77–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chiou MS, Li HY (2002) Equilibrium and kinetic modeling of adsorption of reactive dye on cross-linked chitosan beads. J Hazard Mater 93:233–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chiou MS, Ho PY, Li HY (2004) Adsorption of anionic dyes in acid solutions using chemically cross-linked chitosan beads. Dyes Pigments 60:69–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Choy KKH, McKay G, Porter JF (1999) Sorption of acid dyes from effluents using activated carbon. Resour Conserv Recycl 27:57–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Choy KKH, Porter JF, McKay G (2000) Langmuir isotherm models applied to the multicomponent sorption of acid dyes from effluent onto activated carbon. J Chem Eng Data 45:575–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chu HC, Chen KM (2002a) Reuse of activated sludge biomass: I. Removal of basic dyes from wastewater by biomass. Process Biochem 37:595–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chu HC, Chen KM (2002b) Reuse of activated sludge biomass: II. The rate processes for the adsorption of basic dyes on biomass. Process Biochem 37:1129–1134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Clark RM (1987) Evaluating the cost and performance of field-scale granular activated carbon systems. Environ Sci Technol 21:573–580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Costa E, Calleja G, Marijuan L (1987) Adsorption of phenol and p-nitrophenol on activated carbon: determination of effective diffusion coefficient. Adsorp Sci Technol 4:59–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dedrick RL, Beckmann RB (1967) Kinetics of adsorption by activated carbon from dilute aqueous solution. AIChe Symp Ser 63:68–78Google Scholar
  31. Dhaouadi H, M’Henni F (2008) Textile mill effluent decolorization using crude dehydrated sewage sludge. Chem Eng J 138:111–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Doulati Ardejani F, Badii K, Limaee NY, Shafaei SZ, Mirhabibi AR (2008) Adsorption of direct red 80 dye from aqueous solution onto almond shells: effect of pH, initial concentration and shell type. J Hazard Mater 151:730–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. El-Guendi MS, Ismail HM, Attyia KME (1995) Activated clay as an adsorbent for cationic dyestuffs. Adsorpt Sci Technol 12:109–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Eren Z, Acar FN (2007) Equilibrium and kinetic mechanism for reactive black 5 sorption onto high lime Soma fly ash. J Hazard Mater 143:226–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Espantaleon AG, Nieto JA, Fernandez M, Marsal A (2003) Use of activated clays in the removal of dyes and surfactants from tannery waste waters. Appl Clay Sci 24:105–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Faust SD, Aly OM (1987) Adsorption processes for water treatment. Butterworth Publishers, USAGoogle Scholar
  37. Ferrero F (2007) Dye removal by low cost adsorbents: hazelnut shells in comparison with wood sawdust. J Hazard Mater 142:144–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Figueiredo SA, Boaventura RA, Loureiro JM (2000) Color removal with natural adsorbents: modeling, simulation and experimental. Sep Purif Technol 20:129–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Finar IL (1973) Addison Wesley Longman ltd., organic chemistry, Vol-1: the fundamental principlesGoogle Scholar
  40. Fogler HS (1997) Elements of chemical reaction engineering. Prentice Hall (India) Ltd, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  41. Fu YZ, Viraraghavan T (2000) Removal of a dye from an aqueous solution by the fungus Aspergillus niger. Water Qual Res J Can 35:95–111Google Scholar
  42. Fu YZ, Viraraghavan T (2001) Removal of CI acid blue 29 from an aqueous solution by Aspergillus niger. Am Assoc Text Chem Color Rev 1:36–40Google Scholar
  43. Fu Y, Viraraghavan T (2002a) Removal of Congo Red from an aqueous solution by fungus Aspergillus niger. Adv Environ Res 7:239–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Fu YZ, Viraraghavan T (2002b) Dye biosorption sites in Aspergillus niger. Bioresour Technol 82:139–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Furusawa T, Smith JM (1973) Fluid-particle and intraparticle mass transport rates in slurries. Ind Eng Chem Fundamen 12:197–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Garg VK, Gupta R, Bala Yadav A, Kumar R (2003) Dye removal from aqueous solution by adsorption on treated sawdust. Bioresour Technol 89:121–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gercel O, Gercel HF, Koparal AS, Ogutveren UB (2008) Removal of disperse dye from aqueous solution by novel adsorbent prepared from biomass plant material. J Hazard Mater 160:668–674Google Scholar
  48. Goel J, Kadirvelu K, Rajagopal C, Garg VK (2005) Removal of lead(II) by adsorption using treated granular activated carbon: batch and column studies. J Hazard Mater 125:211–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gulnaz O, Kaya A, Matyar F, Arikan B (2004) Sorption of basic dyes from aqueous solution by activated sludge. J Hazard Mater 108:183–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gupta GS, Shukla SP (1996) An inexpensive adsorption technique for the treatment of carpet effluents by low cost materials. Adsorp Sci Technol 13:15–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gupta VK, Suhas (2009) Application of low cost adsorbents for dye removal – a review. J Environ Manage 90:2313–2342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gupta VK, Srivastava SK, Mohan D (1997) Equilibrium uptake, sorption dynamics, process optimization, and column operations for the removal and recovery of malachite green from wastewater using activated carbon and activated slag. Ind Eng Chem Res 36:2207–2218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gupta VK, Mohan D, Sharma S, Sharma M (2000) Removal of basic dyes (Rhodamine B and Methylene Blue) from aqueous solutions using bagasse fly ash. Sep Sci Technol 35:2097–2113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gupta VK, Mittal A, Kurup L, Mittal J (2006) Adsorption of a hazardous dye, erythrosine, over hen feathers. J Colloid Interface Sci 304:52–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gupta VK, Carrott PJM, Carrott R, Suhas MML (2009) Low cost adsorbents: growing approach to wastewater treatment – a review. Crit Rev Env Sci Technol 39:783–842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gurses A, Karaca S, Dogar C, Bayrak R, Acikyildiz M, Yalcin M (2004) Determination of adsorptive properties of clay/water system: methylene blue sorption. J Colloid Interface Sci 269:310–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hamdaoui O (2006) Batch study of liquid-phase adsorption of methylene blue using cedar sawdust and crushed brick. J Hazard Mater 135:264–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hameed BH (2009a) Removal of cationic dye from aqueous solution using jackfruit peel as non-conventional low-cost adsorbent. J Hazard Mater 162:344–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hameed BH (2009b) Spent tea leaves: a new non-conventional and low-cost adsorbent for removal of basic dye from aqueous solutions. J Hazard Mater 161:753–759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hameed BH, El-Khaiary MI (2008) Batch removal of malachite green from aqueous solutions by adsorption on oil palm trunk fibre: equilibrium isotherms and kinetic studies. J Hazard Mater 154:237–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hand DW, Crittenden JE, Thacker WE (1983) User oriented batch reactor solutions to the homogeneous surface diffusion model. J Environ Eng 109:82–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hasnain Isa M, Siew Lang L, Asaari FAH, Aziz HA, Azam Ramli N, Dhas JPA (2007) Low cost removal of disperse dyes from aqueous solution using palm ash. Dyes Pigments 74:446–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ho YS, McKay G (1998a) Kinetic models for the sorption of dye from aqueous solution by wood. Process Saf Environ Prot 76:183–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ho YS, McKay G (1998b) Sorption of dye from aqueous solution by peat. Chem Eng J 70:115–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ho YS, Wase DAJ, Forster CF (1996) Kinetic studies of competitive heavy metal adsorption by sphagnum moss peat. Environ Technol 17:71–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Ho YS, Chiang TH, Hsueh YM (2005) Removal of basic dye from aqueous solution using tree fern as a biosorbent. Process Biochem 40:119–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hu QH, Qiao SZ, Haghseresht F, Wilson MA, Lu GQ (2006) Adsorption study for removal of basic red dye using bentonite. Ind Eng Chem Res 45:733–738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Jain AK, Gupta VK, Bhatnagar A, Jain S, Suhas (2003a) A comparative assessment of adsorbents prepared from industrial wastes for the removal of cationic dye. J Indian Chem Soc 80:267–270Google Scholar
  69. Jain AK, Gupta VK, Bhatnagar A, Suhas (2003b) A comparative study of adsorbents prepared from industrial wastes for removal of dyes. Sep Sci Technol 38:463–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Jain AK, Gupta VK, Bhatnagar A, Suhas (2003c) Utilization of industrial waste products as adsorbents for the removal of dyes. J Hazard Mater 101:31–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Janos P, Buchtova H, Ryznarova M (2003) Sorption of dyes from aqueous solutions onto fly ash. Water Res 37:4938–4944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Juang RS, Tseng RL, Wu FC (2001) Role of microporosity of activated carbons on their adsorption abilities for phenols and dyes. Adsorption 7:65–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Juang RS, Wu FC, Tseng RL (2002) Characterization and use of activated carbons prepared from bagasses for liquid-phase adsorption. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 201:191–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kannan N, Sundaram MM (2001) Kinetics and mechanism of removal of methylene blue by adsorption on various carbons – a comparative study. Dyes Pigments 51:25–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kapoor A, Yang RT, Wong C (1989) Surface diffusion. Catal Rev Sci Eng 31:129–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kargi F, Ozmihci S (2004) Biosorption performance of powdered activated sludge for removal of different dyestuffs. Enzym Microb Technol 35:267–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Khan SA, Rehma R, Khan MM (1995) Adsorption of Cr(III), Cr(VI) and Ag(I) on Bentonite. Waste Manag 15:271–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Khattri SD, Singh MK (1999) Colour removal from dye wastewater using sugar cane dust as an adsorbent. Adsorpt Sci Technol 17:269–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Khattri SD, Singh MK (2000) Colour removal from synthetic dye wastewater using a bioadsorbent. Water Air Soil Pollut 120:283–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Komiyama H, Smith J (1974) Surface diffusion in liquid filled pores. AICHE J 20:1110–1117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kunii D, Levenspiel O (1991) Fluidization engineering. Butterworth-Heinemann, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  82. Levenspiel O (1972) Chemical reaction engineering. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  83. Liapis AI, Rippin DWT (1977) A general model for the simulation of multicomponent adsorption from a finite batch. Chem Eng Sci 23:619–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Lin JX, Zhan SL, Fang MH, Qian XQ, Yang H (2008) Adsorption of basic dye from aqueous solution onto fly ash. J Environ Manag 87:193–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Magdy YH, Daifullah AAM (1998) Adsorption of a basic dye from aqueous solutions onto sugar-industry-mud in two modes of operations. Waste Manag 18:219–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Malik PK (2003) Use of activated carbons prepared from sawdust and rice-husk for adsorption of acid dyes: a case study of acid yellow 36. Dyes Pigments 56:239–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Malik R, Ramteke DS, Wate SR (2007) Adsorption of malachite green on groundnut shell waste based powdered activated carbon. Waste Manag 27:1129–1138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Manju GN, Raji C, Anirudhan TS (1998) Evaluation of coconut husk carbon for the removal of arsenic from water. Water Res 32:3062–3070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Martel B, Devassine M, Crini G, Weltrowski M, Bourdonneau M, Morcellet M (2001) Preparation and sorption properties of a beta-cyclodextrin-linked chitosan derivative. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 39:169–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Martin MJ, Artola A, Balaguer MD, Rigola M (2003) Activated carbons developed from surplus sewage sludge for the removal of dyes from dilute aqueous solutions. Chem Eng J 94:231–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Mathews P, Weber WJ Jr (1976) Effects of external mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion on adsorption rates in slurry reactors. AIChe Symp Ser 73Google Scholar
  92. McKay G (1984) Analytical solution using a pore diffusion model for a pseudoirreversible isotherm for the adsorption of basic dye on silica. AIChE J 30(4):692–697Google Scholar
  93. McKay G, Allen SJ, McConvey IF, Otterburn MS (1981) Transport processes in the sorption of colored ions by peat particles. J Colloid Interface Sci 80:323–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. McKay G, El-Geundi M, Nassar MM (1997) Equilibrium studies for the adsorption of dyes on bagasse pith. Adsorpt Sci Technol 15:251–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. McKay G, Porter JF, Prasad GR (1999) The removal of dye colours from aqueous solutions by adsorption on low-cost materials. Water Air Soil Pollut 114:423–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Mendez A, Fernandez F, Gasco G (2007) Removal of malachite green using carbon-based adsorbents. Desalination 206:147–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Meshko V, Markovska L, Mincheva M, Rodrigues AE (2001) Adsorption of basic dyes on granular activated carbon and natural zeolite. Water Res 35:3357–3366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Mohamed MM (2004) Acid dye removal: comparison of surfactant-modified mesoporous FSM-16 with activated carbon derived from rice husk. J Colloid Interface Sci 272:28–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Morais LC, Freitas OM, Goncalves EP, Vasconcelos LT, Gonzalez Beca CG (1999) Reactive dyes removal from wastewaters by adsorption on eucalyptus bark: variables that define the process. Water Res 33:979–988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Motoyuki S (1990) Adsorption engineering. Elsevier Science Publishers, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  101. Namasivayam C, Arasi D (1997) Removal of Congo Red from wastewater by adsorption onto waste red mud. Chemosphere 34:401–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Namasivayam C, Kavitha D (2002) Removal of Congo Red from water by adsorption onto activated carbon prepared from coir pith, an agricultural solid waste. Dyes Pigments 54:47–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Namasivayam C, Sumithra S (2005) Removal of direct red 12B and methylene blue from water by adsorption onto Fe (III)/Cr(III) hydroxide, an industrial solid waste. J Environ Manag 74:207–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Namasivayam C, Yamuna RT (1995) Adsorption of direct red 12B by biogas residual slurry equilibrium and rate processes. Environ Pollut 89:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Namasivayam C, Prabha D, Kumutha M (1998) Removal of direct red and acid brilliant blue by adsorption on to banana pith. Bioresour Technol 64:77–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Namasivayam C, Dinesh Kumar M, Selvi K, Ashruffunissa Begum R, Vanathi T, Yamuna RT (2001) ‘Waste’ coir pith–a potential biomass for the treatment of dyeing wastewaters. Biomass Bioenergy 21:477–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Nassar MM, Magdy YH (1997) Removal of different basic dyes from aqueous solutions by adsorption on palm-fruit bunch particles. Chem Eng J 66:223–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Nemr AE, Abdelwahab O, El-Sikaily A, Khaled A (2009) Removal of direct blue- 86 from aqueous solution by new activated carbon developed from orange peel. J Hazard Mater 161:102–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Neretnieks I (1976) Adsorption in finite batch and counter flow with systems having a nonlinear isotherm. Chem Eng Sci 31:107–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Netpradit S, Thiravetyan P, Towprayoon S (2003) Application of ‘waste’ metal hydroxide sludge for adsorption of azo reactive dyes. Water Res 37:763–772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. O’Mahony T, Guibal E, Tobin JM (2002) Reactive dye biosorption by Rhizopus arrhizus biomass. Enzym Microb Technol 31:456–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Okada K, Yamamoto N, Kameshima Y, Yasumori A (2003) Adsorption properties of activated carbon from waste newspaper prepared by chemical and physical activation. J Colloid Interface Sci 262:194–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Oliveira LCA, Goncalves M, Oliveira DQL, Guerreiro MC, Guilherme LRG, Dallago RM (2007) Solid waste from leather industry as adsorbent of organic dyes in aqueous-medium. J Hazard Mater 141:344–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Osma JF, Saravia V, Toca-Herrera JL, Couto SR (2007) Sunflower seed shells: a novel and effective low-cost adsorbent for the removal of the diazo dye Reactive Black 5 from aqueous solutions. J Hazard Mater 147:900–905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Otero M, Rozada F, Calvo LF, Garcia AI, Moran A (2003a) Kinetic and equilibrium modelling of the methylene blue removal from solution by adsorbent materials produced from sewage sludges. Biochem Eng J 15:59–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Otero M, Rozada F, Calvo LF, Garcıá AI, Morań A (2003b) Elimination of organic water pollutants using adsorbents obtained from sewage sludge. Dyes Pigments 57:55–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Ozacar M, Sengil IA (2002) Adsorption of acid dyes from aqueous solutions by calcined alunite and granular activated carbon. Adsorption 8:301–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Ozacar M, Sengil IA (2003) Adsorption of reactive dyes on calcined alunite from aqueous solutions. J Hazard Mater B98:211–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Ozacar M, Sengil IA (2005) Adsorption of metal complex dyes from aqueous solutions by pine sawdust. Bioresour Technol 96:791–795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Ozacar M, Sengil IA (2006) A two stage batch adsorber design for methylene blue removal to minimize contact time. J Environ Manag 80:372–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Ozcan AS, Erdem B, Ozcan A (2004) Adsorption of acid blue 193 from aqueous solutions onto Na-bentonite and DTMA-bentonite. J Colloid Interface Sci 280:44–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Ozdemir O, Armagan B, Turan M, Celik MS (2004) Comparison of the adsorption characteristics of azo-reactive dyes on mezoporous minerals. Dyes Pigments 62:49–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Pavan FA, Lima EC, Dias SLP, Mazzocato AC (2008) Methylene blue biosorption from aqueous solutions by yellow passion fruit waste. J Hazard Mater 150:703–712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Ponnusami V, Vikram S, Srivastava SN (2008) Guava (Psidium Guajava) leaf powder: novel adsorbent for removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions. J Hazard Mater 152:276–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Poots VJP, McKay G, Healy JJ (1976a) The removal of acid dye from effluent using natural adsorbents—I peat. Water Res 10:1061–1066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Poots VJP, McKay G, Healy JJ (1976b) The removal of acid dye from effluent using natural adsorbents – II wood. Water Res 10:1067–1070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Poots VJP, McKay G, Healy JJ (1978) Removal of basic dye from effluent using wood as an adsorbent. J Water Pollut Control Fed 50:926Google Scholar
  128. Purkait MK, Gusain DS, Dasgupta S, De S (2004) Adsorption behavior of Chrysoidine dye on activated Charcoal and its regeneration characteristics by using different surfactants. Sep Sci Technol 39:2419–2440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Purkait MK, Dasgupta S, De S (2005) Adsorption of eosin dye on activated carbon and its surfactant based desorption. J Environ Manage 76:135–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Purkait MK, Maiti A, Dasgupta S, De S (2007) Removal of congo red using activated carbon and its regeneration. J Hazard Mater 145:287–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Santos SCR, Vilar VJP, Boaventura RAR (2008) Waste metal hydroxide sludge as adsorbent for a reactive dye. J Hazard Mater 153:999–1008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Sekaran G, Shanmughasundaram KA, Mariaappan M, Raghavan KV (1995) Utilisation of a solid waste generated in leather industry for removal of dye in aqueous solution. Indian J Chem Technol 2:311–316Google Scholar
  133. Seredych M, Bandosz TJ (2007) Removal of cationic and ionic dyes on industrial-municipal sludge based composite adsorbents. Ind Eng Chem Res 46:1786–1793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Shawabkeh RA, Tutunji MF (2003) Experimental study and modeling of basic dye sorption by diatomaceous clay. Appl Clay Sci 24:111–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Singha S, Sarkar U, Mondal S, Saha S (2012) Transient behavior of a packed column of Eichhornia Crassipes stem for the removal of hexavalent chromium. Desalination 297:48–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Sivaraj R, Namasivayam C, Kadirvelu K (2001) Orange peel as an adsorbent in the removal of acid violet 17 (acid dye) from aqueous solutions. Waste Manag 21:105–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Spahn H, Schlunder EU (1975) the scale-up of activated carbon columns for water purification, based on results from batch tests—I: theoretical and experimental determination of adsorption rates of single organic solutes in batch tests. Chem Eng Sci 30:529–537Google Scholar
  138. Sun G, Xu X (1997) Sunflower stalk as adsorbents for color removal from textile wastewater. Ind Eng Chem Res 36:808–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Thinakaran N, Panneerselvam P, Baskaralingam P, Elango D, Sivanesan S (2008) Equilibrium and kinetic studies on the removal of acid red 114 from aqueous solutions using activated carbons prepared from seed shells. J Hazard Mater 158:142–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Thomas HC (1944) Heterogeneous ion exchange in a flowing system. J Am Chem Soc 66:1664–1466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Tor A, Cengeloglu Y (2006) Removal of congo red from aqueous solution by adsorption onto acid activated red mud. J Hazard Mater 138:409–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Tsai WT, Hsu HC, Su TY, Lin KY, Lin CM (2008) Removal of basic dye (methylene blue) from wastewaters utilizing beer brewery waste. J Hazard Mater 154:73–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Tseng RL, Wu FC, Juang RS (2003) Liquid-phase adsorption of dyes and phenols using pinewood-based activated carbons. Carbon 41:487–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Valix M, Cheung WH, McKay G (2004) Preparation of activated carbon using low temperature carbonisation and physical activation of high ash raw bagasse for acid dye adsorption. Chemosphere 56:493–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Venkata Mohan S, Sailaja P, Srimurali M, Karthikeyan J (1999) Colour removal of monoazo acid dye from aqueous solution by adsorption and chemical coagulation. Environ Eng Policy 1:149–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Walker GM, Hansen L, Hanna JA, Allen SJ (2003) Kinetics of a reactive dye adsorption onto dolomitic sorbents. Water Res 37:2081–2089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Wang L, Wang A (2007) Adsorption characteristics of Congo red onto the chitosan/montmorillonite nanocomposite. J Hazard Mater 147:979–985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Wang S, Li L, Wu H, Zhu ZH (2005) Unburned carbon as a low-cost adsorbent for treatment of methylene blue-containing wastewater. J Colloid Interface Sci 292:336–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Waranusantigul P, Pokethitiyook P, Kruatrachue M, Upatham ES (2003) Kinetics of basic dye (methylene blue) biosorption by giant duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza). Environ Pollut 125:385–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Weber WJ Jr, Rumer RR Jr (1965) Intraparticle transport of sulfonated alkylbenzenes in a porous solid: diffusion and non-linear adsorption. Water Resour Res 1:361–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Wong YC, Szeto YS, Cheung WH, McKay G (2004) Adsorption of acid dyes on chitosan–equilibrium isotherm analyses. Process Biochem 39:695–704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Wu FC, Tseng RL, Juang RS (2000) Comparative adsorption of metal and dye on flake- and bead-types of chitosans prepared from fishery wastes. J Hazard Mater 73:63–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Yoon YH, Nelson JH (1984) Application of gas adsorption kinetics. I. A theoretical model for respirator cartridge service time. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 45:509–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Zhang FS, Itoh H (2003) Adsorbents made from waste ashes and post-consumer PET and their potential utilization in wastewater treatment. J Hazard Mater 101:323–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sourav Mondal
    • 1
  • Mihir Kumar Purkait
    • 2
  • Sirshendu De
    • 3
  1. 1.Mathematical InstituteUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology GuwahatiGuwahatiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Chemical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology KharagpurKharagpurIndia

Personalised recommendations