• Sourav Mondal
  • Mihir Kumar Purkait
  • Sirshendu De
Part of the Green Chemistry and Sustainable Technology book series (GCST)


The presence of colored wastewater in the aquatic streams is hazardous to the environmental ecology affecting the aquatic life severely. With the growth of textile industry, dye-containing effluent is a potential water treatment issue. Moreover, dye-containing wastewater (even in trace amounts) is toxic to human consumption. There have been several conventional water treatment technologies based on adsorption which purifies dye-containing wastewater. The present chapter explains an overview to the different processes, types of dye compounds, and the safe discharge limits of different types of contamination-containing dyes.


Color Wastewater Dye structures Effluent Textile industry 


  1. Al-Kdasi A, Idris A, Saed K, Guan CT (2004) Treatment of textile wastewater by advanced oxidation processes—a review. Global Nest J 6(3):222–230Google Scholar
  2. Bae JS, Freeman HS (2007) Aquatic toxicity evaluation of new direct dyes to the Daphnia Magna. Dyes Pigments 73:81–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bafana A, Devi SS, Chakrabarti T (2011) Azo dyes: past, present and the future. Environ Rev 19:350–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Banat IM, Nigam P, Singh D, Marchant R (1996) Microbial decolorization of textile-dye containing effluents: a review. Bioresour Technol 58:217–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baughman GL, Perenich TA (1988) Fate of dyes in aquatic systems: solubility and partitioning of some hydrophobic dyes and related compounds. Environ Toxicol Chem 7:183–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen H (2006) Recent advances in azo dye degrading enzyme research. Current Protein-Peptide Sci 7:101–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Choy KH, Mckay G, Porter JF (1999) Sorption of acid dyes from effluents using activated carbon. Resour Conserv Recycl 27:57–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Christie RM (2007) Environmental aspects of textile dyeing. Boca Raton, WoodheadCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chu W (2001) Dye removal from textile dye waste water using recycled alum sludge. Wat Res 35:3147–3152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chung KT, Cerniglia CE (1992) Mutagenicity of azo dyes: structure-activity relationships. Mutat Res 277:201–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Combes RD, Havelandsmith RB (1982) A review of the genotoxicity of food, drug and cosmetic colors and other azo, triphenylmethane and xanthene dyes. Mutat Res 98:101–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. EWA (2005) Efficient use of water in the textile finishing industry, official publication of the European water association (EWA). BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  13. Georgion D, Aivazidis A, Hatiras J, Gimouhopoulos K (2003) Treatment of cotton textile waste water using lime and ferrous sulphate. Wat Res 37:2248–2250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ghaly AE, Ananthashankar R, Alhattab M, Ramakrishnan VV (2014) Production, characterization and treatment of textile effluents: a critical review. J Chem Eng Proc Technol 5:1000182Google Scholar
  15. Gupta VK, Mohan D, Sharma S, Sharma M (2000) Removal of basic dyes (rhodamine B and methylene blue) from aqueous solutions using bagasse fly ash. Sep Sci Technol 35:2097–2113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Haitan B, Teng TJT, Omar AKM (2000) Removal of dyes and industrial dye wastes by magnesium chloride. Wat Res 34:597–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hatch KL, Maibach HI (1999) Dyes as contact allergens: a comprehensive record. Text Chem Color 1:53–59Google Scholar
  18. Hunger K (2003) Industrial dyes: chemistry, properties, applications. Wiley-VCH, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  19. Husain Q (2006) Potential applications of the oxidoreductive enzymes in the decolorization and detoxification of textile and other synthetic dyes from polluted water: a review. Crit Rev Biotechnol 26:201–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jeng-Shiou W, Hung LC, Chu KH, Suen SY (2008) Removal of cationic dye methyl violet 2B from water by cation exchange membranes. J Membr Sci 309:239–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kawamura S (2000) Integrated design and operation of water treatment facilities. Wiley, New York, pp 74–75Google Scholar
  22. Kuo WG (1992) Decolorizing dye waste-water with fenton reagent. Water Res 26:881–886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Labanda J, Sabaté J, Llorens J (2009) Modeling of the dynamic adsorption of an anionic dye through ion-exchange membrane adsorber. J Membr Sci 340:234–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mathur N, Bhatnagar P (2007) Mutagenicity assessment of textile dyes from Sanganer (Rajasthan). J Environ Biol 28:123–126Google Scholar
  25. Medvedev ZA, Crowne HM, Medvedeva MN (1988) Age related variations of hepato carcinogenic effect of azo dye (3′- MDAB) as linked to the level of hepatocyte polyploidization. Mech Age Devlop 46:159–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nohyneka GJ, Fautz R, Kieffer FB, Toutain H (2004) Toxicity and human health risk of hair dyes. Food Chem Toxicol 42:517–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Novotny C, Dias N, Kapanen A, Malachova K, Vandrovcova M, Itavarra M, Lima N (2006) Comparative use of bacterial, algal and protozoan tests to study toxicity of azo and anthraquinone dyes. Chemosphere 63:1436–1442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pagga U, Brown D (1986). The degradation of dyestuffs: part II behaviour of dyestuffs in aerobic biodegradation tests. Chemosphere 15(4):479–491Google Scholar
  29. Panswed T, Wangchaisuwan M (1986) Mechanism of dye wastewater color removal by magnesium chloride. Wat Sci Technol 18:139–144Google Scholar
  30. Percy AJ, Moore N, Chipman JK (1989) Formation of nuclear anomalies in rat intestine by benzidine and its biliary metabolites. Toxicology 57:217–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pinheiro HM, Touraud E, Thomas O (2004) Aromatic amines from azo dye reduction: status review with emphasis on direct UV spectrophotometric detection in textile industry wastewaters. Dyes Pigm 61:121–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Puvaneswari N et al (2006) Toxicity assessment and microbial degradation of azo dyes. Indian J Exp Biol 44:618Google Scholar
  33. Rai HS, Bhattacharyya MS, Singh J, Bansal TK, Vats P, Banerjee UC (2005) Removal of dyes from the effluent of textile and dyestuff manufacturing industry: a review of emerging techniques with reference to biological treatment. Crit Rev Env Sci Technol 35:219–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Robinson T, McMullan G, Marchant R, Nigam P (2001) Remediation of dyes in textile effluent: a critical review on current treatment technologies with a proposed alternative. Biores Technol 77:247–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Robinson T, Chandran B, Naidu S, Nigam P (2002) Studies on the removal of dyes from a synthetic textile effluent using barley husk in static-batch mode and in a continuous flow, packed-bed reactor. Biores Technol 85:43–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Shaw CB, Carliell CM, Wheatley AD (2002) Anaerobic/aerobic treatment of colored effluents using sequencing batch reactors. Water Res 36:1993–2001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Slokar YM, Le Marechal AM (1997) Methods of decolorization of textile wastewaters. Dyes Pigm 37:335–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Umbuzeiro GA, Freeman HS, Warren SH, Oliveira DP, Terao Y, Watanabe T, Claxton DL (2005) The contribution of azo dyes to the mutagenic activity of Cristais river. Chemosphere 60:55–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Venkatamohan S, Rao N, Karthikeyan J (2002) Adsorptive removal of direct azo dye from aqueous phase onto coal based sorbents: a kinetic and mechanistic study. J Hazard Mater B90:189–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Vogel EW (1982) Assessment of chemically induced genotoxic events, Prospectives and limitations. Universitaire Pers Leiden, LeidenGoogle Scholar
  41. Weber E, Wolfe NL (1987) Kinetic studies of reduction of aromatic azo compounds in anaerobic sediment/water systems. Environ Toxicol Chem 6:911–920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Weisburger JH (2002) Comments on the history and importance of aromatic and heterocyclic amines in public health. Mutation Res-Fundam Mol Mech Muta 506-507:9–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. WTO (2012) World trade report 2012: trade and public policies. World Trade Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  44. Yaneva ZL, Georgieva NV (2012) Insights into Congo red adsorption on agro-industrial materials - spectral, equilibrium, kinetic, thermodynamic, dynamic and desorption studies. A review. Int Rev Chem Eng 4:127–146Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sourav Mondal
    • 1
  • Mihir Kumar Purkait
    • 2
  • Sirshendu De
    • 3
  1. 1.Mathematical InstituteUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology GuwahatiGuwahatiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Chemical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology KharagpurKharagpurIndia

Personalised recommendations