Advertisement

Magic

  • Jack Barbalet
Chapter

Abstract

Weber claims that Calvinism ‘liquidated’ magic while Confucianism, he says, is magic-tolerant. The chapter explores Weber’s discussion of the importance of magic in the evolution of religion and considers his treatment of magic in both Calvinism and Confucianism. The chapter demonstrates that Weber’s claims regarding Calvinist demagicalization are made without reference to Reformation Calvinist obsessions with satanic witchcraft, in which the reality of magic is accepted and expressed in the witch hunts that lasted more than a century. Through a careful analysis of Calvin’s own writings it is shown that although Calvinism opposed magic, it did not eliminate it, but accepted it as an element of the religious force-field. The chapter makes an original contribution, providing a major challenge to Weber’s Protestant Ethic thesis.

References

  1. Aldenhoff, Rita. 2010. ‘Max Weber and the Evangelical-Social Congress’. Pp. 193–202 in Max Weber and his Contemporaries, edited by Wolfgang J. Mommsen and Jürgen Osterhammel. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  2. Angus, Ian H. 1983. ‘Disenchantment and Modernity’. Human Studies. 6(2): 141–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashiwa, Yoshiko and Wank, David L. 2009. ‘Making Religion, Making the State in Modern China’. pp. 1–21 in Making Religion, Making the State: The Politics of Religion in Modern China, edited by Yoshiko Ashiwa and David L. Wank. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Baker, Hugh D.R. 1979. Chinese Family and Kinship. New York: Columbia University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berghahn, Volker. 2005. Imperial Germany 1871–1918: Economy, Society, Culture and Politics. New York: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  6. Calvin, John. 2002. Institutes of the Christian Religion, translated by Henry Beveridge. Grand Rapids: Christian Classics Ethereal Library.Google Scholar
  7. Clark, Anthony E. (ed). 2014. A Voluntary Exile: Chinese Christianity and Cultural Confluence since 1552. Bethlehem: Lehigh University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Clark, Christopher. 2008. ‘Religion and Confessional Conflict’. Pp. 83–105 in Imperial Germany 1871–1918, edited by James Retallack. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Coe, Rodney M. 1997. ‘The Magic of Science and the Science of Magic: An Essay on the Process of Healing’. Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 38(1): 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Daston, Lorraine. 1991. ‘Marvelous Facts and Miraculous Evidence in Early Modern Europe’. Critical Inquiry. 18(1): 93–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. David-Neel, Alexandra. 1907. Socialisme Chinois: Le Philosophe Meh-Ti et l’Idée de Solidarité. London: Luzac and Co.Google Scholar
  12. de Groot, Jan Jakob Marie. 1910. The Religion of the Chinese. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  13. Faber, Ernst. 1877. Die Grundgedanken des alten chinesischen Socialismus oder die Lehre des Philosophen Micius. Elberfeld: Friderichs.Google Scholar
  14. Faure, David. 2006. China and Capitalism: A History of Business Enterprise in Modern China. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Figala, Karin. 2004. ‘Newton’s Alchemy’. Pp. 370–86 in The Cambridge Companion to Newton, edited by I. Bernard Cohen and George Edwin Smith. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Freedman, Maurice. 1979. ‘Geomancy’. Pp. 313–33 in his The Study of Chinese Society: Essays by Maurice Freedman, edited by G. William Skinner. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Girardot, Norman J. 2002. The Victorian Translation of China: James Legge’s Oriental Pilgrimage. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  18. Glete, Jan. 2002. War and the State in Early Modern Europe: Spain, the Dutch Republic and Sweden as Fiscal-Military States, 1500–1660. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm. 1995. ‘The German Theological Sources and Protestant Church Politics’. Pp. 34–41 in Weber’s Protestant Ethic: Origins, Evidence, Contexts, edited by Lehmann Karl and Guenther Roth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Graham, A.C. 1990. The Book of Lieh-tzŭ: A Classic of Tao. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Greene, Thomas M. 2005. ‘Language, Signs and Magic’. Pp. 29–42 in his Poetry, Signs and Magic. Newark: University of Delaware Press.Google Scholar
  22. Haley, Peter. 1980. ‘Rudolph Sohm on Charisma’. The Journal of Religion. 60(2): 185–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Honigsheim, Paul. 1950. ‘Max Weber: His Religious and Ethical Background and Development’. Church History. 19(4): 219–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Huenemann, Ralph William. 1984. The Dragon and the Iron Horse: The Economics of Railroads in China, 1876–1937. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. James, William. 2002. The Varieties of Religious Experience, Centenary Edition. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  26. Johnston, Ian (translator). 2010. The Mozi: A Complete Translation. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Johnstone, Nathan. 2004. ‘The Protestant Devil: The Experience of Temptation in Early Modern England’. Journal of British Studies. 43(2): 173–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kent, Percy Horace. 1907. Railway Enterprise in China: An Account of its Origin and Development. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  29. Knoblock, John (translator). 1999a. Xunzi. Volume 1 (Library of Chinese Classics: Chinese-English). Hunan: Human People’s Publishing House.Google Scholar
  30. Knoblock, John (translator). 1999b. Xunzi. Volume 2. (Library of Chinese Classics: Chinese-English). Hunan: Human People’s Publishing House.Google Scholar
  31. Legge, James. 1895. ‘That the Nature is Evil by the philosopher Hsün’. Pp. 79–88 in his The Chinese Classics: Volume II, The Works of Mencius. Oxford: The Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  32. Legge, James. 1962a. ‘The Tâo te King’. Pp. 45–124 in The Texts of Taoism, Volume 1. New York: Dover.Google Scholar
  33. Legge, James. 1962b. ‘The Writings of Chuang Tzŭ: Part 1’. Pp. 127–309 in The Texts of Taoism, Volume 1. New York: Dover.Google Scholar
  34. Lyons, Sara N. 2014. ‘The Disenchantment/Re-enchantment of the World: Aesthetics, Secularisation, and the Gods of Greece from Friedrich Schiller to Walter Pater’. Modern Language Review. 109(4): 873–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Maxwell-Stuart, Peter. 2004. ‘Witchcraft and Magic in Eighteenth-Century Scotland’. Pp. 81–99 in Beyond the Witch Trials: Witchcraft and Magic in Enlightenment Europe, edited by Owen Davies and Willem de Blécourt. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Moerman, Daniel E. 2002. Meaning, Medicine and the ‘Placebo Effect’. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mommsen, Wolfgang J. 1989. The Political and Social Theory of Max Weber. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  38. Monter, E. William. 1971. ‘Witchcraft in Geneva, 1537–1662’. Journal of Modern History. 43(2): 179–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Needham, Joseph. 1956. Science and Civilization in China. Volume 2, History of Scientific Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Pollard, David E. (translator). 2014. Real Life in China at the Height of Empire: Revealed by the Ghosts of Ji Xiaolan. Hong Hong: The Chinese University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Qi, Xiaoying. 2014. Globalized Knowledge Flows and Chinese Social Theory. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  42. Schluchter, Wolfgang. 1985. The Rise of Western Rationalism: Max Weber’s Developmental History, translated, with an introduction, by Guenther Roth. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  43. Scribner, R.W. 2001. ‘The Reformation, Popular Magic, and the ‘Disenchantment of the World’. Pp. 346–65 in his Religion and Culture in Germany (1400–1800). Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  44. Sivin, Nathan. 1976. ‘Chinese Alchemy and the Manipulation of Time’. Isis. 67(4): 513–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sivin, Nathan. 1985. ‘Max Weber, Joseph Needham, Benjamin Nelson: The Question of Chinese Science’. Pp. 37–49 in Civilizations East and West: A Memorial Volume for Benjamin Nelson, edited by E.V. Walter, Vytautas Kavolis, Edmund Leites and Marie Coleman Nelson. Atlantic Highlands: Humanities Press.Google Scholar
  46. Smith, David Norman. 1998. ‘Faith, Reason, and Charisma: Rudolph Sohm, Max Weber and the Theology of Grace’. Sociological Inquiry. 68(1): 32–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Stark, Werner. 1968. ‘The Place of Catholicism in Max Weber’s Sociology of Religion’. Sociological Analysis. 29(4): 202–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Styers, Randall. 2004. Making Magic: Religion, Magic, and Science in the Modern World. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sun, Anna Xiao Dong. 2005. ‘The Fate of Confucianism as Religion in Socialist China: Controversies and Paradoxes’. Pp. 229–53 in State, Market, and Religions in Chinese Societies, edited by Fenggang Yang and Joseph B. Tamney. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  50. Swatos, William H. and Kivisto, Peter. 1991. ‘Max Weber as “Christian Sociologist”’. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. 30(4): 347–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tambiah, Stanley J. 1990. Magic, Science and Religion and the Scope of Rationality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Tanakh. 1985. Tanakh: The Holy Scriptures. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society.Google Scholar
  53. Thomas, Keith. 1997. Religion and the Decline of Magic: Studies in Popular Beliefs in Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century England. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Thorndike, Lynn. 1923. A History of Magic and Experimental Science. Volume 1. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Trevor-Roper, Hugh. 1978. The European Witch-craze of the 16th and 17th Centuries. Harmondsworth: Penguin.Google Scholar
  56. Weber, Max. 1963. The Sociology of Religion, translated by Ephraim Fischoff. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  57. Weber, Max. 1964. The Religion of China: Confucianism and Taoism, translated and edited by Hans H. Gerth, with an Introduction by C.K. Yang. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  58. Weber, Max. 1967. Ancient Judaism, translated and edited by Hans H. Gerth and Don Martindale. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  59. Weber, Max. 1970a. ‘Science as a Vocation’. Pp. 129–56 in From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, edited by H.H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  60. Weber, Max. 1970b. ‘The Social Psychology of World Religions’. Pp. 267–301 in From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, edited by H.H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  61. Weber, Max. 1978. Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology, edited by Guenther Roth and Claus Wittich. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  62. Weber, Max. 1981. General Economic History, translated by Frank Knight. New Brunswick: Transaction Books.Google Scholar
  63. Weber, Max. 1991. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, translated by Talcott Parsons. London: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  64. Weber, Max. 2002. ‘The Protestant Ethic and the “Spirit” of Capitalism (1905)’. Pp. 1–202 in Max Weber: The Protestant Ethic and the “Spirit” of Capitalism and Other Writings, edited and translated by Peter Baehr and Gordon C. Wells. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  65. Weber, Max. 2014. ‘The Meaning of “Value Freedom” in the Sociological Economic Sciences’. Pp. 304–34 in Max Weber: Collected Methodological Writings, edited by Hans Henrik Bruun and Sam Whimster. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  66. Whimster, Sam. 2007. Understanding Weber. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  67. White, Michael. 1999. Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer. Reading: Helix Books.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jack Barbalet
    • 1
  1. 1.Australian Catholic UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations