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This chapter is an introduction to the whole book. First, it discusses the importance of the subject matter of the book. China is currently experiencing a period of massive urbanization. For the first time in Chinese history, more Chinese live in the country’s cities than in the rural areas. As a result, Chinese urbanites are likely to determine the future of the country. It is the assumption of the author that political culture shapes people’s political behavior. Chinese political culture is not unique, even though it might have differences from political cultures of other countries. This book also takes an empirical approach to the study of political culture in urban China. An outline of the book is also laid out in this chapter.