Advertisement

Access to Life-Saving Medicines and Healthcare: A Case Study of Aurangabad District of Bihar

  • Imteyaz AhmadEmail author
  • Anita Rath
Chapter
  • 430 Downloads
Part of the India Studies in Business and Economics book series (ISBE)

Abstract

This is a quantitative study conducted during June 2012 to March 2013. The objectives of the study were to review the policies related to essential medicines in India and to assess the availability and accessibility of essential medicines and healthcare in Primary Health Centres. Availability of life-saving medicines at the Primary Health Centres was studied by referring to Public Health Standard’s Guidelines regarding essential medicines. The study reflects on three important aspects—medicine availability, status of healthcare services and finally, households’ economic conditions and their expenditure on health. The study reveals that despite modified health system and holistic approach under National Rural Health Mission, there remains significant gaps in health service delivery in India. The primary data shows that some of the Reproductive and Child Health services were seriously lacking in all the PHCs. While laboratory test facility was satisfactorily available in all the centres, it was difficult for the PHCs to tackle frequent outbreak of epidemics every year with the limited resources. Lack of availability of essential medicines was a critical concern.

Keywords

Essential medicines Healthcare Primary health centres Health policy 

References

  1. Adelman, M. J., & Baldia, S. (1996). Prospects and limits of the patent provision in the TRIPS agreement: The case of India. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 29, 507.Google Scholar
  2. Anand, G. (2016). ‘True scale’ of India’s tuberculosis problem: 2.8 million new cases, The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/10/14/world/asia/true-scale-of-indias-tuberculosis-problem-2-8-million-new-cases.html. Accessed June 28, 2017.
  3. Anonymous. (2005). Drug prices: Requiem for DPCO? Economic and Political Weekly, 40(33), 3620.Google Scholar
  4. Arrow, K. J. (1963). Uncertainty and the welfare economics of medical care. The American Economic Review, American Economic Association, 53(5), 941–973. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1812044. Accessed February 2, 2013.
  5. AVERT. (2015). HIV and AIDS in India. https://www.avert.org/professionals/hiv-around-world/asia-pacific/india. Accessed June 28, 2017.
  6. Berman, P., Ahuja, R., & Bhandari, L. (2010). The impoverishing effect of healthcare payments in India: New methodology and findings. Economic & Political Weekly, 45(16), 65–71.Google Scholar
  7. Bonu, S., Bhusan, I., & Peters, D. H. (2007). Incidence, intensity and correlates of catastrophic out of pocket health payments in India. ERD Working Paper No 102, Asian Development Bank.Google Scholar
  8. Cecilia, D. (2014). Current status of dengue and chikungunya in India. WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health, 3(1), 22–27. www.searo.who.int/publications/journals/seajph. Accessed June 28, 2017.
  9. Chaudhuri, S. (2007). The gap between successful innovation and access to its benefits: Indian pharmaceuticals. The European Journal of Development Research., 19, 49–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dhopatkar, V. (2012). Indian Pharmaceutical Industry. Maharashtra Economic Development Council Monthly Economic Digest, 41(03), 37–39.Google Scholar
  11. District Health Society. (n.d., a). District health action plan 2011–12. Bihar: Aurangabad.Google Scholar
  12. District Health Society. (n.d., b). District health action plan: 2012–13. Bihar: Aurangabad.Google Scholar
  13. Garg, C. C., & Karan, A. K. (2009). Reducing out-of-pocket expenditures to reduce poverty: A disaggregated analysis at rural-urban and state level in India. Health Policy and Planning, 24(2), 116–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ghoshal, A. G., Ravindran, G. D., et al. (2016). The burden of segregated respiratory diseases in India and the quality of care in these patients: Results from the Asia-Pacific burden of respiratory diseases study. Lung India, 33(6), 611–619. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5112817/. Accessed June 28, 2017.
  15. Hathi Committee Report on Drugs and Pharmaceuticals. (1975). Department of chemical and fertilizers. New Delhi: Government of India.Google Scholar
  16. Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority. (n.d.). Report on medical inflation over the years. New Delhi: Insurance Information Bureau, Government of India.Google Scholar
  17. Kaur, K. (2014). Anaemia ‘a silent killer’ among women in India: Present scenario. European Journal of Zoological Research, 3(1), 32–36. http://www.scholarsresearchlibrary.com/articles/anaemia-a-silent-killer-among-women-in-india-present-scenario.pdf. Accessed June 28, 2017.
  18. Krishna, I. V. R. (2002, March 16–29). Patent Issues: The Doha-Delhi Odyssey. Frontline. http://www.frontline.in/navigation/?type=static&page=archive. Accessed June 14, 2017.
  19. Lakshminarayanan, S., & Jayalakshmy, R. (2015). Diarrheal diseases among children in India: Current scenario and future perspectives. Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine, 6(1), 24–28. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4367049/. Accessed June 28, 2017.
  20. Lal, P. G., & Sinha, D. (2005). The Commission report: Building on values. New Delhi: National Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.Google Scholar
  21. Lofgren, H. (2012). The pharmaceutical industry and access to medicines in India. In Hans Lofgren (Ed.), The politics of the pharmaceutical industry and access to medicines: World pharmacy and India (pp. 1–23). New Delhi: Social Science Press.Google Scholar
  22. Menghaney, L. (2009). Without Compulsory Licensing-Patients the World Over Will Pay the Price. Centre for Trade and Development, Policy Brief Series No 9, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  23. Mueller, J. M. (2007). The Tiger Awakens: The Tumultuous Transformation of India’s Patent System and the Rise of Indian Pharmaceutical Innovation. University of Pittsburgh Law Review, 68(3), 491–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nandakumar, A. (2009). National Cancer Registry Programme. Indian Council for Medical Research, Consolidated report of the population based cancer registries 1990–96. http://www.icmr.nic.in/ncrp/ncrp_p/cancer_reg.pdf. Accessed June 28, 2017.
  25. National Health Accounts: India 2004–05. (2009). National Health Accounts Cell, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi. http://planningcommission.nic.in/reports/genrep/health/National_Health_Account_04_05.pdf.
  26. National Pharmaceutical Pricing Policy. (2011). Department of Pharmaceuticals, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers, Government of India, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  27. National Pharmaceutical Pricing Policy. (2012). Department of Pharmaceuticals, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers, Government of India, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  28. NIMR. (n.d.). Estimation of true malaria burden in India. http://www.mrcindia.org/MRC_profile/profile2/Estimation%20of%20true%20malaria%20burden%20in%20India.pdf. Accessed June 28, 2017.
  29. Parliamentary Standing Committee on Health and Welfare. (2012). The Function of the Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO). New Delhi: Government of India.Google Scholar
  30. Planning Commission. (2008). Eleventh Five Year Plan: 2007–12 Volume II: Social Sector. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, Government of India.Google Scholar
  31. Planning Commission. (2011). High level expert group report on Universal health coverage for India. Planning commission of India. New Delhi. http://planningcommission.nic.in/reports/genrep/rep_uhc0812.pdf. Accessed June 22, 2017.
  32. Planning Commission. (2012). Drugs and Pharmaceuticals: Report. Working Groups/Steering Committees for the Twelfth Five Year Plan 2012–2017, Government of India, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  33. Prabhakaran, D., Jeemon, P., et al. (2016). Cardiovascular Diseases in India: Current Epidemiology and Future Directions. American Heart Association 133(16), 1605–1620. http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/133/16/1605. Accessed June 28, 2017.
  34. Pronab Sen Committee. (2005). Report: Task force to explore options other than price control for achieving the objective of making available life-saving drugs at reasonable prices. Ministry of Chemicals and Petrochemicals, Government of India, New Delhi. http://pharmaceuticals.gov.in/sites/default/files/Dr.%20Pronab%20Sen%20Committee%20Report1_0.pdf. Accessed June 23, 2017.
  35. Rane, W. (2003). Have drug prices fallen? Economic and Political Weekly, 38(44), 4640–4642.Google Scholar
  36. Rao, M. G., & Choudhury, M. (2012). Health care financing reforms in India. National Institute of Public Finance and Policy, Working Paper No: 2012-100.Google Scholar
  37. Reddy, A. K. (2004). Innovating drugs: Emerging perspectives. In Pharmacophore 2004: International Symposium, Hyderabad.Google Scholar
  38. Reddy, K. S., Selvaraj, S., Rao, K. D., et al. (2011). A critical assessment of the existing health insurance models in India. New Delhi: Public Health Foundation of India.Google Scholar
  39. Report on Medical Inflation over the years. (n.d.). Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority, Insurance Information Bureau, Government of India, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  40. Selvaraj, S. (2007). How effective is India’s drug price control regime? Boston, MA: Harvard School of Public Health.Google Scholar
  41. Selvaraj, S., Chokshi, M., Hasan, H., & Kumar, P. (2010). Improving Governance and accountability in India’s medicine supply system. New Delhi: Public Health Foundation of India.Google Scholar
  42. Selvaraj, S., & Farooqui, H. H. (2012). Draft drug price policy 2011: Legitimising unaffordable medicine prices? Economic and Political Weekly, 47(46), 13–17.Google Scholar
  43. Selvaraj, S., & Karan, A. K. (2009). Deepening health insecurity in India: Evidence from national sample surveys since 1980s. Economic & Political Weekly, 44(40), 55–60.Google Scholar
  44. Sengupta, A., Joseph, R. K., Modi, S., Syam, N. (2008). Economic constraints to access to essential medicines in India. New Delhi: Society for Economic & Social Studies and Centre for Trade & Development.Google Scholar
  45. Srinivasan, S. (2001). Drug price control: Who is in charge? Economic and Political Weekly, 36(12), 997–998.Google Scholar
  46. Srinivasan, S. (2006). Lay person’s guide to medicines. Baroda: LOCOST.Google Scholar
  47. Van Doorslaer, E., O’Donnell, O., Rannan-Eliya, R. P., et al. (2006). Effect of payments for health care on poverty estimates in 11 countries in Asia: An analysis of household survey data. The Lancet, 368(9544), 1357–1364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Van Doorslaer, E., O’Donnell, O., Rannan-Eliya, R. P., et al. (2007). Catastrophic payments for health care in Asia. Health Economics, 16(11), 1159–1184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. World Health Organisation. (1977). Health topics: Essential medicines. Geneva. http://www.who.int/topics/essential_medicines/en/. Accessed June 23, 2017.
  50. Xu, K., Evans, D. B., Carrin, G., et al. (2007). Protecting households from catastrophic health spending. Health Affairs, 26, 972–983. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.26.4.97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tata Institute of Social SciencesMumbaiIndia

Personalised recommendations