The cells of Cyanidioschyzon merolae have advantageous features for omics analyses. The genomes of the cell nucleus, mitochondrion, and chloroplast have been completely sequenced in C. merolae and are thus ready for omics analyses utilizing complete genome information. Phase-specific microarray analysis of a synchronous culture of C. merolae revealed the gene expression profiles nearing the organelle division cycle and mitotic cycle. In ammonium-depleted cultures of C. merolae, the gene expression patterns of cells were analyzed, and the nitrate assimilation pathway was revealed. Microarray analysis for chloroplast-encoded and mitochondrion-encoded genes of C. merolae was also conducted. The results revealed that organelle gene expressions correlate to the light period or the progression of the cell cycle. Proteomic analyses of organelles and sub-organelles of C. merolae have been promoted using MALDI TOF-MS. Comparative proteomic analysis of chloroplasts between interphase and metaphase revealed the dynamic changes in protein composition. Proteins composing the dividing machineries of chloroplasts and peroxisomes were identified using isolation techniques for sub-organellar structure. Isolated vacuoles and storage glucans were also analyzed, and proteins associated with the functions of these organelles were found.
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Our study was partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI (no. 23770234 to M.Y.; JP15K18588 to T.F.; no. 25251039 to S.M.), by the Maekawa Houonkai Foundation (M.Y.), and by the Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology Program of the Japan Science and Technology Agency (S.M.).
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