Regulation of Organelle and Cell Division by Cytoskeletal and Motor Proteins in Cyanidioschyzon merolae
During cell proliferation, many types of organelles must be correctly distributed into daughter cells before cytokinesis. Pioneering microscopic and molecular physiological experiments revealed that organelle proliferation and segregation into daughter cells of Cyanidioschyzon merolae are tightly regulated. The first breakthroughs were achieved using synchronized cell cultures treated with cell-cycle inhibitors, which enabled elucidation of the sequential patterns of organelle divisions within the cell division cycle. In addition, the dynamics of organelle movements during cell division suggested that they were mediated by the cytoskeletal network and motor proteins. Recent state-of-the-art investigations into the molecular functions of a kinesin-like protein (TOP) and a mitotic kinase (AUR) have revealed that an integrated regulatory mechanism controls the division of many types of organelles. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses suggest that C. merolae cells lack a classical actomyosin-based cytokinesis system. However, eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha (eEF-1α) is specifically and spatiotemporally enriched at the cell division site during cytokinesis, suggesting that C. merolae cells utilize an evolutionarily ancient cell division system.
KeywordsAurora serine/threonine mitotic kinase (AUR) Cyanidioschyzon merolae Cytokinesis Eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha (eEF-1α) Microtubules Spindle apparatus Kinesin superfamily protein Organelle division Organelle segregation
This work was supported by a Human Frontier Science Program Long Term Fellowship (LT000356/2011-L to Y.Y.) and a grant from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Fellowship (no. 14J04556 to Y.I.).
- Fujiwara T, Misumi O, Tashiro K et al (2009) Periodic gene expression patterns during the highly synchronized cell nucleus and organelle division cycles in the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. DNA Res 16:59–72. https://doi.org/10.1093/dnares/dsn032 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Numata O, Kurasawa Y, Gonda K, Watanabe Y (2000) Tetrahymena elongation factor-1α is localized with calmodulin in the division furrow. J Biochem 127:51–56. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.jbchem.a022583 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Suzuki K, Kawazu T, Mita T, Takahashi H, Itoh R, Toda K, Kuroiwa T (1995) Cytokinesis by a contractile ring in the primitive red alga Cyanidium caldarium RK-1. Eur J Cell Biol 67:170–178Google Scholar