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Cyanidiales: Evolution and Habitats

  • Shinya MiyagishimaEmail author
  • Jong Lin Wei
  • Hisayoshi Nozaki
  • Shunsuke Hirooka
Chapter

Abstract

Cyanidioschyzon merolae is a unicellular alga without a cell wall that inhabits sulfuric hot springs. It is a member of the red algae Cyanidiales that diverged from other red algal lineages approximately 1.3–1.4 billion years ago. Cyanidiales are the only eukaryotes and phototrophic organisms found in sulfuric hot springs, but some rare species have also been found in nonthermal and/or neutrophilic environments. They are classified into three genera, namely, Galdieria, Cyanidium, and Cyanidioschyzon. Galdieria can grow heterotrophically and mixotrophically in contrast to the (almost) obligate photoautotrophs Cyanidium and Cyanidioschyzon. Cells of Galdieria and Cyanidium are surrounded by a rigid cell wall and proliferate by forming autospores in the mother cell wall. In contrast, Cyanidioschyzon lacks a cell wall and proliferates by binary fission. Recent phylogenetic studies have classified Cyanidiales into four distinct lineages: Galdieria lineage, acidophilic Cyanidium lineage, neutrophilic Cyanidium lineage, and the lineage that comprises G. maxima, Galdieria-like algae, and Cyanidioschyzon. Recent studies using high-throughput sequencing technologies have started to reveal that both gene losses and horizontal gene transfer from environmental prokaryotes have contributed to the emergence and diversification of Cyanidiales and their adaptation to respective habitats.

Keywords

Acidophile Cyanidiale Cyanidiophyceae Cyanidioschyzon Galdieria Cyanidium 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Dr. Sumiya (Keio University) for helping us to take photographs of Cyanidiales in their natural habitats. Our study was partly supported by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research 25251039 (to S.M.) and by the Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology Program of the Japan Science and Technology Agency (S.M.).

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shinya Miyagishima
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jong Lin Wei
    • 1
    • 3
  • Hisayoshi Nozaki
    • 4
  • Shunsuke Hirooka
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Cell GeneticsNational Institute of GeneticsShizuokaJapan
  2. 2.Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology ProgramJapan Science and Technology AgencySaitamaJapan
  3. 3.Department of GeneticsGraduate University for Advanced StudiesShizuokaJapan
  4. 4.Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of ScienceUniversity of TokyoTokyoJapan

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