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Metabolic Changes During Cancer Cachexia Pathogenesis

  • Ng Shyh-ChangEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1026)

Abstract

Wasting of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle is a hallmark of metastatic cancer and a major cause of death. Like patients with cachexia caused by other chronic infections or inflammatory diseases, the cancer subject manifests both malnutrition and metabolic stress. Both carbohydrate utilization and amino acid incorporation are decreased in the muscles of cancer cachexia patients. Cancer cells affect host metabolism in two ways: (a) their own metabolism of nutrients into other metabolites and (b) circulating factors they secrete or induce the host to secrete. Accelerated glycolysis and lactate production, i.e., the Warburg effect and the resultant increase in Cori cycle activity, are the most widely discussed metabolic effects. Meanwhile, although a large number of pro-cachexia circulating factors have been found, such as TNFa, IL-6, myostatin, and PTHrp, none have been shown to be a dominant factor that can be targeted singly to treat cancer cachexia in humans. It is possible that given the complex multifactorial nature of the cachexia secretome, and the personalized differences between cancer patients, targeting any single circulating factor would always be insufficient to treat cachexia for all patients. Here we review the metabolic changes that occur in response to tumor growth and tumor-secreted factors during cachexia.

Keywords

Cachexia Cancer Metabolism Circulating factors 

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Genome Institute of SingaporeAgency for Science Technology and ResearchSingaporeSingapore

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