Changes in Production Structure and Class Composition in Agriculture: An Analysis of Agrarian Question Based on Punjab Experience

  • Balwinder Singh Tiwana
  • Paramjit Singh


The importance of agrarian question in India can be seen from the fact that more than 60% of the population is living in rural areas and is dependent upon agriculture for their livelihood. The question also holds immense importance if we examine it by relating to the imperialist strategy, globalisation and neoliberal policies. Hardly any comprehensive attempt has been made to examine the impact of national and international policies on production structure and class composition in rural areas. No doubt, economists have tried to understand the causes of agricultural growth and then the stagnation in production and productivity experienced over the period. But the real causes of such changes have remained unanswered. An understanding of changes in the production relations and class composition requires the institutional understating of social-political relations at the village level and changes therein over a period. Taking Punjab as a case study, this study is an attempt to highlight the real causes of changes in the production structure and production relations being caused by the growth of capitalism in agriculture and their consequences.


Capitalism Production structure Production relations Agrarian question 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EconomicsPunjabi UniversityPatialaIndia
  2. 2.Department of EconomicsPanjab UniversityChandigarhIndia

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