Damage Prognosis of Plain Concrete Under Low-Cycle Fatigue Using Piezo-Based Concrete Vibration Sensors

  • Anjaneya DixitEmail author
  • Abhinav Bindal
  • Suresh Bhalla
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering book series (LNME)


The recent advent of smart materials in structural health monitoring (SHM) has paved the path for research as well as varied applications of piezo-sensors in the field of engineering. As a smart material, lead–zirconate–titanate (PZT) has proven to be an indispensable tool for SHM due to its easy availability in varying sizes and shapes, cost-effectiveness, high damage sensitivity and ease of installation. Existing research shows that PZT sensors, coupled with the electromechanical impedance (EMI) technique, can identify as well as quantify the damages induced in concrete and metals with appreciable accuracy. The study presented here employs the admittance signatures from the PZT sensors to monitor the accumulating damage in plain concrete specimens under low-cycle fatigue loading. PZT patches in the form of embeddable concrete vibration sensors (CVSs) are used for sensing purposes. Three cube specimens of size 150 mm were prepared: two cubes with single embedded CVS (acting in self-sensing mode) and one with a pair of CVS. The specimens were subjected to loading and unloading cycles until failure using a 3000 kN compressive testing machine. Admittance signatures were recorded from the CVS using a LCR meter at various damage stages. These signatures were then analyzed, and the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) plots were generated to get a full damage profile of the specimens. The results reflect the effectiveness of the PZT sensors to identify the fatigue-induced damages in the concrete using PZT sensors.


Structural health monitoring (SHM) Electromechanical impedance (EMI) Fatigue Concrete vibration sensors Lead–zirconate–titanate (PZT) 


  1. 1.
    Shankar R, Bhalla S, Gupta A, Kumar MP (2011) Dual use of PZT patches as sensors in global dynamic and local electromechanical impedance techniques for structural health monitoring. J Intell Mater Syst Struct 22(16):1841–1856 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bhalla S, Soh CK (2004) Structural health monitoring by piezo–impedance transducers. I: modeling. J Aerosp Eng 17(4):154–165, 166.
  3. 3.
    Bhalla S, Gupta A (2007) A novel vibration sensor for concrete structures. Patent application no. 1011/DEL/2011Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Giurgiutiu V, Reynolds A, Rogers CA (1999) Experimental investigation of E/M impedance health monitoring for spot-welded structural joints. J Intell Mater Syst Struct 10(10):802–812.
  5. 5.
    Bhalla S, Vittal PA, Veljkovic M (2012) Piezo-impedance transducers for residual fatigue life assessment of bolted steel joints. Struct Health Monit 11(6):733–750.
  6. 6.
    Giurgiutiu V, Rogers CA (1998) Recent advancements in the electro-mechanical (E/M) impedance method for structural health monitoring and NDE. In: SPIEs 5th annual international symposium on smart structures and materials, 1–5 Mar 1998Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rogers CA (1988) Workshop summary. In: Proceedings U.S. army research office workshop on smart materials, structures and mathematical issues. Technomic Publishing Co., pp 1–12Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rogers CA, Barker DK, Jaeger CA (1988) Introduction to smart materials and structures. In: Proceedings of U.S. army research office workshop on smart materials, structures and mathematical issues. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Technomic Publishing Co., pp 17–28Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology DelhiNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations