Advertisement

Economic Development

  • Scott Hipsher
Chapter
  • 473 Downloads

Abstract

There seems to be a consensus that economic growth is a fundamental component of sustained and substantial poverty reduction. Despite some political rhetoric claiming otherwise, there is a significant amount of evidence showing what does and what does not promote the economic growth, which is essential to reduce poverty. History teaches us that the private sector ownership of the factors of production with a strong state creating a fair, but not overly intrusive, regulatory system, as well as a high level of international economic integration, helps produce conditions needed for sustained and substantial poverty reduction. Tourism has a role to play in creating economic growth, but it is more likely to help grow an economy while complementing and not replacing other industries. Macroeconomic environments in most countries fall far short of ideal conditions due to political concerns, attempts by entrenched elites to maintain the status quo and hold on to power, and other special interest pressures. But despite the less-than-perfect conditions, we have also seen significant economic growth leading to poverty reduction and wealth creation, driven by the value-creating activities of innovative private sector firms while operating in challenging political environments, especially in Asia, in recent years. While the role of economic freedom in economic growth is well established, the role of political freedom through engaging in democratic processes is less clear; therefore, the promotion of democracy might be more effective if it is decoupled from the debates over economic prosperity.

References

  1. Acemoglu, D., & Robinson, J. (2010). The role of institutions in growth and development. In D. Brady & M. Spence (Eds.), Leadership and growth (pp. 135–164). Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  2. Acemoglu, D., & Robinson, J. (2012). Why nations fail. Danvers: Crown Business.Google Scholar
  3. Afonso, A., & Sousa, R. M. (2009). The macroeconomic effects of fiscal policy (European Central Bank working paper series, no. 991).Google Scholar
  4. Alesina, A. (2012). Fiscal policy after the great recession. Atlantic Economic Journal, 40, 429–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson, K. (2005). On the virtues of multilateral trade negotiations. Economic Record, 81(255), 414–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aoki, S., Esteban-Pretel, J., Okazaki, T., & Sawada, Y. (2010). The role of the government in facilitating TFP growth during Japan’s rapid-growth era. In K. Otsuka & K. Kalirajan (Eds.), Community, market and state in development (pp. 21–44). London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arizmendi, L. (2016). Baroque modernity and peasant poverty in the twenty-first century. In J. Boltvinik & S. A. Mann (Eds.), Peasant poverty and persistence in the 21st century: Theories, debates, realities and policies (pp. 141–167). London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  8. Arora, V., & Varnvakidis, A. (2005). How much do trading partners matter for economic growth? IMF Staff Papers, 52(1), 24–40.Google Scholar
  9. Asian Development Bank. (2009). Study on intraregional trade and investment in South Asia. Mandaluyong City: Asian Development Bank.Google Scholar
  10. Aung San Suu Kyi. (2013). Democracy and development in Asia. Asian Journal of Peacebuilding, 1(1), 117–127.Google Scholar
  11. Baark, E. (2016). The Chinese state and its role in shaping China’s innovation system. In Y. Chu (Ed.), The Asian developmental state: Reexaminations and new departures (pp. 159–174). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  12. Bang, P. F. (2009). Commanding and consuming the world: Empire, tribute and trade in Roman and Chinese history. In W. Scheidel (Ed.), Rome and China (pp. 100–120). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Barkin, D., & Lemus, B. (2016). Overcoming rural poverty from the bottom up. In J. Boltvinik & S. A. Mann (Eds.), Peasant poverty and persistence in the 21st century: Theories, debates, realities and policies (pp. 345–365). London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  14. Bartra, A. (2016). Rethinking rustic issues: Contributions to a theory of contemporary peasantry. In J. Boltvinik & S. A. Mann (Eds.), Peasant poverty and persistence in the 21st century: Theories, debates, realities and policies (pp. 92–117). London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  15. Beattie, A. (2009). False economy: A surprising economic history of the world. New York: Riverhead.Google Scholar
  16. Berggren, N., & Jordahl, H. (2005). Does free trade really reduce growth? Further testing using the economic freedom index. Public Choice, 122(1/2), 99–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bhagwati, J. (2004). In defense of globalization. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Bhagwati, J. (2005). Globalization and appropriate governance. In A. Shorrocks (Ed.), Wider perspectives in global development (pp. 74–100). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bhagwati, J., & Panagariya, A. (2013). Why growth matters: How economic growth in India reduced poverty and the lessons for other developing economies. New York: Public Affairs.Google Scholar
  20. Bird, M. (2013). Unbundling institutional reform: The case of a garment cluster in Lima, Peru, 1998–2008. In M. Thai & E. Turkina’s (Eds.), Entrepreneurship in the informal economy: Models, approaches and prospects for economic development (pp. 145–160). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  21. Boisclair, R. A. (2016). Gospel readings on poverty and affluence in most Eastern and Western Churches. In N. R. Kollar & M. Shafiq (Eds.), Poverty and wealth in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (pp. 105–126). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Boltvinik, J. (2016). Poverty and persistence of the peasantry: Background paper. In J. Boltvinik & S. A. Mann (Eds.), Peasant poverty and persistence in the 21st century: Theories, debates, realities and policies (pp. 45–91). London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  23. Brady, D., & Spence, M. (2010). Leadership and politics: A perspective from the commission on growth and development. In D. Brady & M. Spence (Eds.), Leadership and growth (pp. 1–14). Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  24. Calhoun, C. (2013). What threatens capitalism. In I. Wallerstein, R. Collins, M. Mann, G. Derluguian, & C. Calhoun’s (Eds.), Does capitalism have a future? (pp. 131–162). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Candela, G., & Figini, P. (2012). The economics of tourism destinations. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chandra, V., Lin, J. Y., & Wang, Y. (2013). Leading dragon phenomenon: New opportunities for catch-up in low-income countries. Asian Development Review, 30(1), 52–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chang, H. (2007). Globalization, global standards, and the future of East Asia. In J. Shin (Ed.), Global challenges and local responses (pp. 14–30). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  28. Chao, C. C., & Sgro, P. (2013). International tourism: Its costs and benefits to host countries. In C. A. Tisdell (Ed.), Handbook of tourism economics: Analysis, new applications and case studies (pp. 605–618). Singapore: World Scientific.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cheong, Y. M. (1992). The political structures of the independent states. In N. Tarling (Ed.), The Cambridge history of Southeast Asia (Vol. 2, pp. 387–466). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Chu, Y. (2016). The Asian developmental state: Ideas and debates. In Y. Chu (Ed.), The Asian developmental state: Reexaminations and new departures (pp. 1–25). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  31. Cochrane, J. H. (2016). Trade and immigration. In G. Shultz (Ed.), Blueprint for America (pp. 109–125). Stanford: Hoover Press.Google Scholar
  32. Collins, R. (2013). The end of middle-classwork: No more escapes. In I. Wallerstein, R. Collins, M. Mann, G. Derluguian, & C. Calhoun’s (Eds.), Does capitalism have a future? (pp. 37–70). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Cord, L. J. (2007). Overview. In T. Besley & L. J. Cord (Eds.), Delivering on the promise of pro-poor growth: Insights and lessons from country experiences (pp. 1–28). New York: World Bank/Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  34. Crossley, P. K. (2010). The wobbling pivot: China since 1800. Chichester: Wiley–Blackwell.Google Scholar
  35. Damián, A., & Pacheco, E. (2016). Employment and rural poverty in Mexico. In J. Boltvinik & S. A. Mann (Eds.), Peasant poverty and persistence in the 21st century: Theories, debates, realities and policies (pp. 206–243). London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  36. De Soto, H. (2001). The mystery of capital: Why capitalism triumphs in the West and fails everywhere else. London: Black Swan.Google Scholar
  37. Diamond, J. (1997). Guns, germs, and steel: The fates of human societies. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  38. Easterly, W. (2008). Introduction: Can’t take it anymore? In W. Easterly (Ed.), Reinventing foreign aid. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  39. Fairbanks, J. K., & Goldman, M. (1992). China: A new history. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.Google Scholar
  40. Ferguson, N. (2003). Empire: How Britain made the modern world. London: Allen Lane.Google Scholar
  41. Ferguson, N. (2011). Civilization – The West and the rest. New York: Penguin Press.Google Scholar
  42. Flew, A. (1989). The philosophy of freedom. The Journal of Libertarian Studies, 9(1), 69–80.Google Scholar
  43. Friedman, E. (1994). Reconstructing China’s national identity: A southern alternative to Mao-era anti-imperialistic nationalism. Journal of Asian Studies, 53(1), 67–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Fukuyama, F. (2011). The origins of political order: From prehumen times to the French Revolution. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.Google Scholar
  45. Fukuyama, F. (2014). Political order and political decay: From the industrial revolution to the globalization of democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.Google Scholar
  46. Gilder, G. (2012). Wealth and poverty: A new edition for the twenty-first century. Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing.Google Scholar
  47. Godo, Y. (2010). The human capital basis of the Japanese miracle: A historical perspective. In K. Otsuka & K. Kalirajan (Eds.), Community, market and state in development (pp. 103–122). London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Harrison, D., & Prasad, B. (2013). The contribution of tourism to the development of Fiji and other pacific island nations. In C. A. Tisdell (Ed.), Handbook of tourism economics: Analysis, new applications and case studies (pp. 741–761). Singapore: World Scientific.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hottola, P. (2009). Tourism development strategies: Lessons from the Southern African experiences. In P. Hottola (Ed.), Tourism strategies and local responses in Southern Africa (pp. 183–202). Wallingford: Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences International (CABI).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hsieh, M. F. (2016). Embedding the economy: The state and export-led development in Taiwan. In Y. Chu (Ed.), The Asian developmental state: Reexaminations and new departures (pp. 73–95). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  51. Inglehart, R., & Welzel, C. (2009). How development leads to democracy. Foreign Affairs, 88(2), 33–48.Google Scholar
  52. Jessop, B. (2016). The developmental state in an era of finance-dominated accumulation. In Y. Chu (Ed.), The Asian developmental state: Reexaminations and new departures (pp. 27–55). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  53. Kigabo, T. T. (2010). Leadership, policy making, quality of economic policies, and their inclusiveness: The case of Rwanda. In D. Brady & M. Spence (Eds.), Leadership and growth (pp. 81–97). Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  54. Kurlantzick, J. (2016). State capitalism: How the return of statism is transforming the world. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Kuttner, K. N., & Posen, A. S. (2002). Fiscal policy effectiveness in Japan. Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, 16, 536–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Laird, M. (2007). Private sector development in a pro-poor growth context: The role of donors. In Business and development: Fostering the private sector (pp. 54–58). Paris: Development Centre of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation & Development.Google Scholar
  57. Lee, J. (2015). Strategic possibilities and limitations for Abe’s Japan in Southeast Asia. Trends in Southeast Asia.Google Scholar
  58. Leff, E. (2016). From the persistence of the peasantry in capitalism to the environmentalism of indigenous people and the sustainability of life. In J. Boltvinik & S. A. Mann (Eds.), Peasant poverty and persistence in the 21st century: Theories, debates, realities and policies (pp. 247–269). London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  59. Lehnert, K., Mamoun, B., & Zhao, H. (2013). FDI inflow and human development: Analysis of FDI’s impact on host countries’ social welfare and infrastructure. Thunderbird International Business Review, 55(3), 285–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Levin, M. (1999). How philosophical errors impede freedom. Journal of Libertarian Studies, 14(1), 125–134.Google Scholar
  61. Li, R. (2016). Changing developmental-ness of the state—The case of China. In Y. Chu (Ed.), The Asian developmental state: Reexaminations and new departures (pp. 197–216). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  62. Littlechild, S. C. (1986). The fallacy of the mixed economy: An ‘Austrian’ critique of recent economic thinking and policy (2nd ed.). London: The Institute of Economic Affairs.Google Scholar
  63. Mann, M. (2013). The end may be nigh, but for whom? In I. Wallerstein, R. Collins, M. Mann, G. Derluguian, & C. Calhoun (Eds.), Does capitalism have a future? (pp. 71–98). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Markin, E. (2014). The arrow impossibility theorem: Where do we go from here. In E. Maskin & A. Sen (Eds.), The arrow impossibility theorem (pp. 43–56). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Matengu, K. (2009). Tourism development and the polemic of ICT advocacy in Namibian schools. In P. Hottola (Ed.), Tourism strategies and local responses in Southern Africa (pp. 158–166). Wallingford: CABI.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. McCulloch, N., Winters, L. A., & Cirera, X. (2001). Trade liberalization and poverty: A handbook. London: Centre for Economic Policy Research.Google Scholar
  67. Menezes-Filho, N., & Vasconcellos, L. (2007). Human capacity, inequality, and propoor growth in Brazil. In T. Besley & L. J. Cord (Eds.), Delivering on the promise of pro-poor growth: Insights and lessons from country experiences. New York: World Bank/Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  68. Mihalic, T. (2013). Economic impacts of tourism, particularly its potential contribution to economic development. In C. A. Tisdell (Ed.), Handbook of tourism economics: Analysis, new applications and case studies (pp. 645–682). Singapore: World Scientific.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Miller, T., & Kim, A. B. (2015). Principles of economic freedom. In T. Miller & A. B. Kim (Eds.), 2015 index of economic freedom (pp. 11–18). Washington, DC/New York: Heritage Foundation & Wall Street Journal.Google Scholar
  70. Moore, S., & Griffith, J. (2015). The freedom path to economic growth: A comparative analysis of country. In T. Miller & A. B. Kim (Eds.), 2015 index of economic freedom (pp. 31–46). Washington, DC/New York: Heritage Foundation & Wall Street Journal.Google Scholar
  71. Morley, S. A. (2003). Distribution and growth in Latin America in an era of structural reform: The impact of globalization. In R. Kohl (Ed.), Globalisation, poverty and inequality (pp. 63–70). Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation & Development.Google Scholar
  72. North, D. C. (2005). The contribution of the new institutional economic to an understanding of the transition problem. In A. Shorrocks (Ed.), Wider perspectives in global development (pp. 1–15). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  73. O’Bryan, S. (2009). The growth idea: Purpose and prosperity in postwar Japan. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. OECD. (2011). Trade for growth and poverty reduction: How aid for trade can help the development dimension. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation & Development.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Park, B. (2007). Globalization and local political economy: The multi-scalar approach. In J. Shin (Ed.), Global challenges and local responses (pp. 50–69). New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Pinaud, N. (2007). Public–private dialogue in developing countries. In Business and development: Fostering the private sector (pp. 59–64). Paris: Development Centre of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation & Development.Google Scholar
  77. Pirie, I. (2016). South Korea after the developmental state. In Y. Chu (Ed.), The Asian developmental state: Reexaminations and new departures (pp. 139–158). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  78. Pomeranz, K. (2000). The great divergence: China, Europe and the making of the modern world economy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  79. Powell, B. (2014). Out of poverty: Sweatshops in the global economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Prammer, D. (2004). Expansionary fiscal consolidation? An appraisal of the literature on non-Keynesian effects of fiscal policy and a case study for Austria. Monetary Policy and the Economy, 3, 34–52.Google Scholar
  81. Pressman, S. (2009). A time to return to Keynes. Critical Perspectives on International Business, 5(1/2), 157–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Pritchett, L., & Woolcock, M. (2008). Solutions when the solution is the problem: Arraying the disarray in development. In W. Easterly (Ed.), Reinventing foreign aid (pp. 147–177). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  83. Ramalingam, B. (2013). Aid on the edge of chaos: Rethinking international cooperation in a complex world. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  84. Robinson, J. A. (2003). Where does inequality come from? Ideas and implication for Latin America. In R. Kohl (Ed.), Globalisation, poverty and inequality (pp. 71–76). Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation & Development.Google Scholar
  85. Rodrik, D. (2011). The globalization paradox: Democracy and the future of the world economy. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  86. Sachs, J., & Yang, X. (1999). Gradual spread of market led industrialization. Center for International Development, Harvard University (Working paper, no. 11).Google Scholar
  87. Sachs, J. (2017a, February 13). Economics and the cultivation of virtue: Lecture 1. Economics and the new moral sciences. London School of Economics lecture series. Podcast available from: http://www.lse.ac.uk/websitearchive/newsAndMedia/videoAndAudio/channels/publicLecturesAndEvents/player.aspx?id=3723
  88. Sachs, J. (2017b, February 14). Economics and the cultivation of virtue: Lecture 2. The hard problem of inter-group morality. London School of Economics lecture series. Podcast available from: http://www.lse.ac.uk/websitearchive/newsAndMedia/videoAndAudio/channels/publicLecturesAndEvents/player.aspx?id=3724
  89. Sachs, J. (2017c, February 15). Economics and the cultivation of virtue: Lecture 3. Cultivating the virtues of globalization. London School of Economics lecture series. Podcast available from http://www.lse.ac.uk/websitearchive/newsAndMedia/videoAndAudio/channels/publicLecturesAndEvents/player.aspx?id=3726
  90. Sahli, M., & Carey, S. (2013). Inbound tourism and economic growth: A review of theory and empirics. In C. A. Tisdell (Ed.), Handbook of tourism economics: Analysis, new applications and case studies (pp. 619–641). Singapore: World Scientific.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Saritoprak, Z. (2016). The story of Qarun (Korah) in the Qur’an and its importance for our times. In N. R. Kollar & M. Shafiq (Eds.), Poverty and wealth in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (pp. 23–30). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sen, A. (1999). Development as freedom (1st ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  93. Sen, A. (2002). Globalization, inequality and global protest. Development, 45(2), 11–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Sen, A. (2014). Arrow and the impossibility theorem. In E. Maskin & A. Sen (Eds.), The arrow impossibility theorem (pp. 29–42). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  95. Sen, A. (2017). Collective choice and social welfare: A conversation with professor Amartya Sen. London School of Economics lecture. Podcast available from http://www.lse.ac.uk/website-archive/newsAndMedia/videoAndAudio/channels/publicLecturesAndEvents/player.aspx?id=3697
  96. Shin, J. (2007). Globalization and challenges to the development state: A comparison between South Korea and Singapore. In J. Shin (Ed.), Global challenges and local responses (pp. 31–49). New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Slater, D. (2010). Ordering power: Contentious politics and authoritarian Leviathans in Southeast Asia. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Smiley, G. (1987). Some Austrian perspectives on Keynesian fiscal policy and the recovery in the thirties. Review of Austrian Economics, 1, 146–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. So, A. Y. (2016). The post-socialist path of the developmental state in China. In Y. Chu (Ed.), The Asian developmental state: Reexaminations and new departures (pp. 175–196). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  100. Sowell, T. (1985). Marxism: Philosophy and economics. New York: William Morrow & Company.Google Scholar
  101. Sowell, T. (2015). Wealth, poverty and politics: An international perspective. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  102. Srinivasan, T. N. (2009). Trade, growth and poverty reduction: Least-developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small states in the global economic system. New Delhi/London: Commonwealth Secretariat/Academic Foundation.Google Scholar
  103. Stark, J. (2005). The state of globalization. The International Economy, 19(2), 52–56.Google Scholar
  104. Stiglitz, J. E. (2005). More instruments and broader goals: Moving toward the post-Washington consensus. In A. Shorrocks (Ed.), Wider perspectives in global development (pp. 16–48). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Tomlinson, B. R. (2003). Economic change and the formulation of states and nations in South Asia, 1941–1947: India and Pakistan. In A. Teichiva & H. Matis (Eds.), Nation, state and the economy in history (pp. 291–307). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Tuschman, A. (2013). Our political nature: The evolutionary origins of what divides us. Amherst: Prometheus Books.Google Scholar
  107. Uysal, M., Perdue, R., & Sirgy, M. J. (2012). Prologue: Tourism and quality-of-life (QOL) research: The missing links. In M. Uysal, R. R. Perdue, & M. J. Sirgy (Eds.), Handbook of tourism and quality-of-life research: Enhancing the lives of tourists and residents of host communities (pp. 1–7). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Van Beuningen, C. (2007). Democracy and development. Development, 50(1), 50–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Vergopoulos, K. (2016). Financialisation of the food sector and peasants’ persistence. In J. Boltvinik & S. A. Mann (Eds.), Peasant poverty and persistence in the 21st century: Theories, debates, realities and policies (pp. 300–312). London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  110. Walde, K., & Wood, C. (2004). The empirics of trade and growth: Where are the policy recommendations? International Economics and Economic Policy, 1(2–3), 275–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Wallerstein, I. (2013). Structural crisis, or why capitalists may no longer find capitalism rewarding. In I. Wallerstein, R. Collins, M. Mann, G. Derluguian, & C. Calhoun (Eds.), Does capitalism have a future? (pp. 9–36). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  112. Wang, J. (2016). Toward a platform builder: The state’s role in Taiwan’s biopharmaceutical industry. In Y.-W. Chu (Ed.), The Asian developmental state: Reexaminations and new departures (pp. 97–115). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  113. Welty, G., Mann, S., Dickinson, J., & Blumenfeld, E. (2016). From field to fork: Labour power, its reproduction, and the persistence of peasant poverty. In J. Boltvinik & S. A. Mann (Eds.), Peasant poverty and persistence in the 21st century: Theories, debates, realities and policies (pp. 118–140). London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  114. Williamson, J. (2005). Winners and losers over two centuries of globalization. In A. Shorrocks (Ed.), Wider perspectives in global development (pp. 136–174). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Winters, A. L. (2006). International trade and poverty: Cause or cure? Australian Economic Review, 39(4), 347–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Yao, S. (2006). On economic growth, FDI and exports in China. Applied Economics, 38(3), 339–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Yarbrough, C. D. (2016). Mary’s Magnificat: The Anawim and Church on the Margins. In N. R. Kollar & M. Shafiq (Eds.), Poverty and wealth in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (pp. 55–73). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Ying, T. Y., Eng, A., & Robinson, E. (2010). Perspectives on growth: A political economy framework: Lessons from the Singapore experience. In D. Brady & M. Spence (Eds.), Leadership and growth (pp. 99–128). Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Scott Hipsher
    • 1
  1. 1.Webster University ThailandBangkokThailand

Personalised recommendations