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Preeclampsia pp 157-172 | Cite as

The Differences Between Early- and Late-Onset Pre-eclampsia

  • Anne Cathrine StaffEmail author
  • Christopher W. G. Redman
Chapter
Part of the Comprehensive Gynecology and Obstetrics book series (CGO)

Abstract

Early- and late-onset pre-eclampsia (PE) exhibit important clinical differences both regarding associations to foetal growth restriction as well as short- and long-term health consequences for the mother and offspring. There is no definition consensus, but dichotomizing into preterm or term delivery (i.e. before or from gestational week (GW) 37) or into a very premature delivery or not (i.e. before or from gestational week 34) is common. The early-onset type is linked to poor placentation and foetal growth restriction, whereas maternal factors were suggested to cause the late-onset disease, without a placental impact. As an alternative model, we have suggested that both forms represent placental dysfunction (stage 1) prior to development of its clinical signs (stage 2), but both the causes of the placental malperfusion and its timing differ. In early-onset pre-eclampsia, the placental dysfunction is ‘extrinsic’ to the placenta, with incomplete spiral artery remodelling (an early pregnancy event). The cause of late-onset pre-eclampsia is ‘intrinsic’ to the growing and ageing placenta, restricting intervillous perfusion. Both pathways lead to secondary syncytiotrophoblast stress and release of pro-inflammatory factors into the maternal circulation. Maternal factors may increase the risk on many levels for the two stages of pre-eclampsia and contribute to the risk for both early- and late-onset forms. Our revised two-stage model of pre-eclampsia is in line with the clinical and biomarker heterogeneity of early- and late-onset disease. In conclusion, we present evidence that placental malperfusion and dysfunction cause both early- and onset pre-eclampsia, albeit for different reasons and with a different timing.

Keywords

Decidua Pre-eclampsia Placenta Hypertension Malperfusion Pathophysiology Pregnancy Spiral artery Two-stage 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anne Cathrine Staff
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Christopher W. G. Redman
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Obstetrics and GynaecologyOslo University HospitalOsloNorway
  2. 2.Faculty of MedicineUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  3. 3.University of OxfordOxfordUK

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