Thermal Decomposition and Stabilization Studies of ADN with AN Impurities in the Presence of Catalysts

  • Pratim Kumar
  • Rajiv Kumar
  • Puran Chandra Joshi
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering book series (LNME)


In the present study, Ammonium Dinitramide (ADN) was synthesized by the nitration of Potassium Sulfamate (PS) salt with mixed acids of nitric/sulfuric acid in the ratio of 4:1 at −40 °C. The synthesized ADN was then characterized by using various analytical instruments. The preliminary result obtained has confirmed that the obtained ADN has AN impurities in its crystals. The next attempt was to stabilize synthesized ADN by adding 2% of catalysts by weight. Catalysts used in the present work are Cupric (II) Oxide (CuO), Ammonium Metavandate (NH4VO3), and Copper Chromite (Cu2Cr2O5). Evaporative crystallization method was used to prepare ADN + Catalysts samples. Simultaneous Thermal Analyzer (STA) was used to study the thermal characteristics of prepared samples by using DSC/TG-DTG techniques. All the three catalysts were found to be effective in stabilization of ADN, however NH4VO3 was found to be most effective.


ADN Thermal stabilization Catalysts DSC TG-DTG 



Authors are thankful to the Dptt of Space engg. and Rocketry, Dptt of Applied Chemistry, and Central Instrumentation Facility (CIF), BIT Mesra for providing all the necessary equipments for carrying out present experimentations.


  1. 1.
    Sutton GP (2001) Rocket propulsion elements seventh edition. Wiley New York, Chapter 12, pp. 474–517Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jacobs PWM, Whitehead HM (1969) Decomposition and combustion of ammonium perchlorate. Chem Rev 69(4):551–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Talawar MB, Sivabalan R, Mukundan T, Muthurajan H, Sikder AK, Gandhe BR, Rao AS (2009) Environmentally compatible next generation green energetic materials (GEMs). J Hazard Mater 161:589–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sinditskii VP, Egorshev VY, Levshenkov AI, Serushkin VV (2006) Combustion of ammonium dinitramide, Part 1: burning behavior. J Propuls Pow 22(4):769–776Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sinditskii VP, Egorshev VY, Levshenkov AI, Serushkin VV (2006) Combustion of ammonium dinitramide, Part 2: combustion mechanism. J Propuls Pow 22( 4):P777–784Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Vandel AP, Lobanova AA, Loginova VS (2009) Application of dinitramide salts (Review). Russ J Appl Chem 89(10):1763–1768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ostmark H, Bemm U, Langlet A, Sanden R, Wingborg N (2000) The properties of ammonium dinitramide (ADN): part 1, basic properties, and spectroscopic data. J Energ Mater 18(2):123–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Heintz T, Pontius H, Aniol J, Birke C, Leisinger K, Reinhard W (2009) Ammonium dinitramide (ADN)-prilling, coating, and characterization. Propellants Explos Pyrotech 34:231–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mishra IB, Russell TP (2002) Thermal stability of ammonium dinitramide. Thermochim Acta 384:47–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Golofit T, Maksimowski P, Biernacki A (2013) Optimization of potassium dinitramide preparation. Propellants Explos Pyrotech 38:261–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wingborg N, de Flon J, Johnson C, Whitelow W (2008) Green propellants based on ADN, space propulsion, 5–8 May’, Heraklion, Crete, Greece. ESA, 3AF, SNPEGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Larsson A, Wingborg W, Green propellants based on ammonium dinitramide, Swedish Defence Research Academy, Sweden, Advances in Spacecraft TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Oommen C, Jain SR (1999) Ammonium nitrate: a promising rocket propellant oxidizer. J Hazard Mater 67:253–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sudhakar AOR, Mathew S (2006) Thermal behavior of CuO doped phase stabilized ammonium nitrate. Thermochim Acta 451:5–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pratim Kumar
    • 1
  • Rajiv Kumar
    • 1
  • Puran Chandra Joshi
    • 1
  1. 1.Birla Institute of TechnologyMesra, RanchiIndia

Personalised recommendations