Advertisement

The Scramble for Land and Natural Resources in Africa

  • Sam Moyo
  • Praveen JhaEmail author
  • Paris Yeros
Chapter
  • 281 Downloads
Part of the Advances in African Economic, Social and Political Development book series (AAESPD)

Abstract

This chapter explores the historical and systemic dynamics of the new scramble for Africa, as well as the current land-grabbing patterns and agents. It is argued that, despite the emergence of new competitors from the South, the key drivers of the scramble remain the Western monopolies and their state patrons, in the context of terminal systemic crisis and transition. It is also argued that the scramble has set off new structural tendencies on the continent, which are transforming Africa’s trajectory in the twenty-first century. The tendencies point towards a convergence of economic and social characteristics among the regions, within the overall trend of intensified marginalization and subordinate integration into the world economy. Yet, new forms of resistance have also emerged, from the local to the national and regional levels, which have made concrete and substantial advances, especially in Southern Africa.

Keywords

Africa Land grabs Scramble Peasant agriculture Super-exploitation 

References

  1. Amin, S. (1972). Underdevelopment and dependence in black Africa: Origins and contemporary forms. Journal of Modern African Studies, 10(4), 503–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amin, S. (1976). Unequal Development (B. Pearce, Trans.). New York, NY & London: Monthly Review Press.Google Scholar
  3. Amin, S. (2003). Obsolescent capitalism: Contemporary capitalism and global disorder. London & New York, NY: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  4. Amin, S. (2010). The law of worldwide value. New York, NY: Monthly Review.Google Scholar
  5. Arrighi, G. (1973). International corporations, labour aristocracies, and economic development in tropical Africa. In G. Arrighi & J. Saul (Eds.), Essays on the political economy of Africa. New York: Monthly Review Press.Google Scholar
  6. CIA [Central Intelligence Agency] (2001). The World Factbook. http://www.odi.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/, accessed in July 2001.
  7. Cotula, L., Vermeulen, S., Leonard, R., & Keeley, J. (2009). Land grab or development opportunity? London & Rome: IIED, FAO & IFAD.Google Scholar
  8. de Janvry, A. (1981). The agrarian question and reformism in latin America. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Dietz, T. (2011). Silverlining Africa: from images of doom and gloom to glimmers of hope; from places to avoid to places to enjoy. Inaugural address, Leiden University and African Studies Centre, January 14. Available at http://www.padev.nl/other_output/Dietz_2011_Silverling_Africa.pdf.
  10. Dos Santos, T. (1978), Imperialismo y dependencia. México: Era.Google Scholar
  11. Doss, C., Summerfield, G., & Tsikata, D. (2014). Land, gender and food security. Feminist Economics, 20(1), 1–23.Google Scholar
  12. ECA [United Nations Economic Commission for Africa] (2003). Land tenure systems and sustainable development in Southern Africa. Document No. ECA/SA/EGM.Land/2003/2, (pp. 2–3).Google Scholar
  13. FAO. (2001a). Gender and food security fact files. Available on http://www.fao.org/Gender/en/agri-e.htm.
  14. FAO. (2001b). Forest resources assessment 2000. Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
  15. FAO (2010). The state of food insecurity in the World: Addressing food insecurity in protracted crises. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
  16. FAO (2013). Towards successful family farming in Africa. Position paper from Cape Town Dialogue. Rome: United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.Google Scholar
  17. FAOSTAT. (2001). Statistics database of the united nations food and agriculture organization. Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
  18. FAOSTAT. (2013). FAOSTAT database. Available at http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data.
  19. Foster, J. B. (2010a). The age of monopoly-finance capital. Monthly Review, 61(9), 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Foster, J. B. (2010b). The financialization of accumulation. Monthly Review, 62(5), 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Foster, J. B., McChesney, R. W., & Jamil Jonna, R. (2011). The internationalization of monopoly capital. Monthly Review, 63(2), 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ghosh, J. (2008). ‘The Global Food Crisis’, Public Lecture delivered at the University of Turin, Italy, May, http://www.networkideas.org.
  23. GoC [Government of China]. (2006). China’s Africa policy. www.gov.cn/misc/2006–01/12/content_156509.htm.
  24. GRAIN. (2008). Seized: The 2008 land grab for food and financial security. http://www.grain.org/briefings/?id=212.
  25. Hendricks, F. (2000). Questioning the land question: Agrarian transition, land tenure, rural development in the former settler colonies of southern Africa. In Kwesi Kwaa Prah & Abel Ghaffar Mohammed Ahmed (Eds.), Africa in Transformation: Political and Economic Issues, Vol. 1 (pp. 33–64). Addis Ababa: Organisation for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa (OSSREA).Google Scholar
  26. IFPRI. (2010). Food security and economic development in the Middle East and North Africa. IFPRI Discussion Paper 00985.Current State and Future Perspectives.Google Scholar
  27. Jha, P., Moyo, S., & Yeros, P. (2017). Capitalism and ‘Labour Reserves’: A note. In C. P. Chandrasekhar & J. Ghosh (Eds.), Interpreting the world to change it: Essays for Prabhat Patnaik (pp. 205–37). New Delhi: Tulika.Google Scholar
  28. Land Matrix. (2012). The online public database on land deals. http://landmatrix.org/en/. Retrieved December 2012.
  29. Lake, W. B., & Souré, M. (1997). Water and development in Africa. Ottawa: International Development Information Centre, CIDA.Google Scholar
  30. Li, M. (2009). The rise of China and the demise of the capitalist world economy. New York, NY: Monthly Review.Google Scholar
  31. Mafeje, A. (2003). The agrarian question, access to land and peasant responses in sub-Sahara Africa. UNRID Programme papers on Civil Society and Social Movements.Google Scholar
  32. Mamdani, M. (1996). Citizen and subject: Contemporary Africa and the legacy of late colonialism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Marini, R. M. (1969). Subdesarrollo y Revolución. Mexico: Siglo Veintiuno.Google Scholar
  34. Marini, R. M. (2000). A Dialética da Dependência, ed. E. Sader. Petrópolis: Editora Vozes.Google Scholar
  35. Mitchell, D. (2008). A note on rising food prices. Policy Research Working Paper No. 4682. The World Bank. Development Prospects Group. July 2008.Google Scholar
  36. Mkandawire, T. (2011). Rethinking pan-Africanism, nationalism and the new regionalism. In S. Moyo & P. Yeros (Eds.), Reclaiming the nation: The return of the national question in Africa, Asia and Latin America (pp. 31–53). London & New York, NY: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  37. Mkandawire, T., & Soludo, C. (1999). Our continent, our future: African perspectives on structural adjustment. Dakar, Ottawa and Asmara: CODESRIA, IDRC and AWP.Google Scholar
  38. Moyo, S. (2000). Land reform under structural adjustment in Zimbabwe: Land use change in the Mashonaland Provinces. Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.Google Scholar
  39. Moyo, Sam. (2008). African land questions, agrarian transitions and the state: Contradictions of neoliberal land reforms. Dakar: CODESRIA.Google Scholar
  40. Moyo, S. (2011a). Three decades of agrarian reform in Zimbabwe. Journal of Peasant Studies, 38(3), 493–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Moyo, S. (2011b). Land Concentration and accumulation after redistributive reform in post-settler Zimbabwe. Review of African Political Economy, 38(128), 257–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Moyo, S. (2011c). Changing Agrarian relations after redistributive land reform in Zimbabwe. Journal of Peasant Studies, 38(5), 939–966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Moyo, S., Jha, P., & Yeros, P. (2013). The classical agrarian question: Myth, reality and relevance today. Agrarian South: Journal of Political Economy, 2(1), 93–199.Google Scholar
  44. Moyo, S., Tsikata, D., & Diop, Y. (Eds.). (2015). Land in the struggles for citizenship in Africa. Dakar: CODESRIA.Google Scholar
  45. Moyo, S., & Yeros, P. (2005). The resurgence of rural movements under neoliberalism. In S. Moyo & P. Yeros (Eds.), Reclaiming the land: The resurgence of rural movements in Africa, Asia and Latin America. London & Cape Town: Zed Books & David Philip.Google Scholar
  46. Moyo, S., & Yeros, P. (2013). The Zimbabwe model: Radicalisation, reform and resistance. In S. Moyo & W. Chambati (Eds.), Land and agrarian reform Zimbabwe: Beyond white-settler capitalism (pp. 331–357). Dakar: CODESRIA.Google Scholar
  47. Moyo, S., Yeros, P., & Jha, P. (2012). Imperialism and primitive accumulation: Notes on the new scramble for Africa. Agrarian South: Journal of Political Economy., 1(2), 181–203.Google Scholar
  48. NEPDG [National Energy Policy Development Group]. (2001). National energy policy, May. http://www.whitehouse.gov.
  49. Nkrumah, K. (1965). Neo-colonialism: The last stage of imperialism. London: Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd.Google Scholar
  50. Patnaik, P. (1972). On the political economy of development. In Economic and political weekly, Annual Number (pp. 197 − 212).Google Scholar
  51. Patnaik, U. (1999). Export-oriented agriculture and food security in developing countries and in India. In Utsa Patnaik (Ed.), The long transition (pp. 351–416). New Delhi: Tulika.Google Scholar
  52. Patnaik, P. (2008). The Accumulation process in the period of globalization. http://www.networkideas.org/feathm/may2008/ft28_Globalization.htm.
  53. Patnaik, U., & Patnaik, P. (2017). A theory of imperialism. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Prasad, A. (2016). Adivasi women agrarian change and forms of labour in Neoliberal India. Agrarian South: Journal of Political Economy, 5(1), 20–49.Google Scholar
  55. Rodney, Walter. (1973). How Europe underdeveloped Africa. Dar es Salaam: Tanzania Publishing House.Google Scholar
  56. Schincariol, V. E., Barbosa, M. S., & Yeros, Paris. (2017). Labour trends in Latin America and the Caribbean in the current crisis (2008–2016). Agriarian South: Journal of Political Economy, 6(1), 113–141.Google Scholar
  57. Shivji, I. G. (2009). Accumulation in an African periphery. Dar es Salaam: Mkuki na Nyota Publishers Ltd.Google Scholar
  58. Tabb, W. K. (2008). The global food crisis and what has capitalism to do with it. www.networkideas.org/focus/Jul2008/fo28_Global_Food_Crisis.htm.
  59. Tsikata, D. (2016). Gender land tenure and agrarian production systems in Africa. Agrarian South: Journal of Political Economy, 5(1), 1–19.Google Scholar
  60. UNEP. (2002). Africa Environment outlook—Past, present and future perspectives. Available on http://www.unep.org/dewa/africa/publications/aeo-1/171.htm. Retrieved on April 5, 2013.
  61. World Bank. (2008). World development report 2008: Agriculture for development. Washington, DC: The World Bank.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.African Institute for Agrarian StudiesHarareZimbabwe
  2. 2.Centre for Economic Studies and PlanningJawaharlal Nehru UniversityNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Federal University of ABC (UFABC)São Bernardo do CampoBrazil

Personalised recommendations