LED Supplementary Lighting



Supplementary lighting is used to improve plant growth; to control plant morphogenesis, including flowering; to protect the plants from diseases; and to improve plant quality. LED technology has several merits for use in supplementary lighting systems, providing flexibility in controlling the light environment. To take full advantage of LED supplementary lighting, it is essential to adequately evaluate the efficiency of LED lighting. The direct evaluation of supplementary lighting involves estimating the benefit corresponding to the objectives of an endeavor. However, lighting efficiency can also be evaluated by interpreting the extent of light intensity that can be improved on leaf surfaces. Moreover, this analysis of light intensity distribution on canopy surfaces contributes to improve stability and reproducibility in both research and application of supplementary lighting.


Light intensity distribution Lighting efficiency Morphogenesis Photosynthesis Photosynthetic photon flux density 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of AgricultureYamaguchi University 1677-1 YoshidaYamaguchiJapan

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