Artificial Lighting System for Plant Growth and Development: Chronological Advancement, Working Principles, and Comparative Assessment

Chapter

Abstract

The presence of favorable light environment is pivotal for optimal plant growth and development. Spatiotemporal deficits of natural light limit the plant productivity which results in poor quantitative and qualitative yield. In order to mitigate the situation, electrical lamps have been chosen as a reliable source of light for indoor cultivation. Over the years, various conventional light sources including incandescent lamps (ILs), fluorescent lamps (FLs), high-pressure mercury lamps (HPMLs), high-pressure sodium lamps (HPSLs), and metal-halide lamps (MHLs) have been employed for plant lighting in greenhouses and controlled environment cultivation facilities. However, these light sources suffer from certain drawbacks such as fixed spectral output, high-power requirement, emission of heat, and short life span. Invention of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has changed the scenario for artificial lighting in all fields of application due to the numerous advanced features as compared to the conventional light sources. Emission spectrum and light intensity of LED panels can be tuned to match the light requirement of the plant species being grown. Low power consumption and long life span make LED lamps the ideal choice for plant lighting in small- and large-scale operations. Low heat emission, small size, and ease of handling add to the merits of LEDs.

Keywords

Light-emitting diodes Photoreceptor Spectral quality Luminous efficacy Plant morphogenesis 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Agricultural and Food Engineering DepartmentIndian Institute of Technology KharagpurKharagpurIndia

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