Architectural and Social Life Reconstructions of Bazaar Streets of Hampi: Vijayanagara Period



This chapter articulates the process, methods and outcomes for conjectural digital reconstructions of Architectural and Social Life of Bazaar Streets of Hampi, a metropolis of Vijayanagara period. Virupaksha, the Vitthala and Krishna Bazaar Streets have been taken as cases to describe the process, methods and outcomes of the proposed digital reconstructions. The methodology for reconstructions is outlined under two major sections; Architectural and Social Life. Architectural reconstruction looks at existing structures of Bazaar Streets and their categorization into typologies. The architectural reconstructions of Bazaar Street look at available samples or instances of architectural elements in the categorized structures of these streets. The Social Life reconstructions analyze clothing style and material culture of Vijayanagara period. Literary resources; Stucco work at Gopurams of Virupaksha and Krishna; murals at Rangamantapa, Virupaksha temple; Lepakshi Temple murals; relief work at Bazaar Streets Hampi and Mahanavami Dibba at Royal Enclosure Hampi were studied. Based on textual narratives from literary resources, conjectural scenarios for Bazaar Streets portraying people, their activity within a selected zone of Virupaksha Bazaar street was visualized.

1 Introduction

Reconstruction of architecture and social life is an upcoming theme of interest in Digital Heritage. One of the well-known examples in this area is the work done under Roman Reborn project [1] which aims to create 3D digital models to illustrate the urban development of Rome from 1000 B.C to 550 A.D. This chapter outlines the architectural and social life reconstructions for the Bazaar streets of Hampi, a metropolis of Vijayanagara period, the objective being to visualize the probable architectural look of bazaars and social activities in varied dimensions. The methodology focuses on field research and literature survey of Vijayanagara period to create coherent digital reconstructions.

2 Site Context and Historical Background for Bazaar Streets of Hampi

The city of Hampi is described to be a metropolis with a length and breadth of around 25 kms [2]. The city has two main zones the royal enclosure comprising of palaces, administrative offices, houses for nobility along with a royal bazaar street and the sacred centre comprising of temple complexes together with bazaar streets:
  1. 1.

    Virupaksha Temple Complex and bazaar street

  2. 2.

    Vitthala Temple Complex and bazaar street

  3. 3.

    Krishna Temple Complex and bazaar street

  4. 4.

    Achyuta Raya Temple complex and bazaar street


The bazaar streets are referred to in literature resources on Hampi as ‘Chariot Streets’, ‘Car Streets’, and ‘Rathavidhi’ indicating that they were constructed for taking temple gods and goddesses out in procession during festivals.

Each of these temple complexes with a bazaar street and surrounding environs formed a Pura, which could be stated to be similar to suburbs of today.

2.1 Virupaksha Temple Complex and Bazaar Street

2.1.1 Virupaksha Temple Complex

Virupaksha temple is a living temple, where deities are worshipped even today. This temple is dedicated to God Virupaksha (Shiva) and his consort Pampadevi (Parvati). The temple has a recorded history of over 1000 years even prior to early 15th century, when Vijayanaraga empire flourished [2]. Scholars [2, 3, 4] have referred to the work Shivatatva Chintamani by Lakkanadandesha who describes that King Devaraya II (Praudhadeva Raya) paid attention to the development of Virupaksha temple and its surroundings. His work includes building a huge enclosure wall to the temple, four gateways in the cardinal directions by clearing the foreground of the temple for laying a wide car street with fruit-bearing trees planted on either side of the Gopuras on the Hemakuta region.

2.1.2 Virupaksha Temple Bazaar Street

The street that runs in front of Virupaksha temple complex is called Virupaksha bazaar street. Earlier studies [5, 6, 7] have stated the length of this street to be 800 m long and over 13 m wide. The street has Virupaksha temple complex at one end and Nandi mantapa at the other end with a series of steps leading to a gateway that marks the end of this street.

A number of literary resources mention about the pulling of chariots on Virupaksha bazaar street. It is said that Devaraya II introduced the annual festival of pulling Rathas (wooden chariots) of temple Gods and Goddesses for a procession on this street [2, 3]. Hampiya Bazaarugalu [8] states ‘According to Lakkandandesha, a commander-in-chief for king Devaraya II, three chariots one for Virupaksha, one for Pampambika and third for Ganesh were taken for procession’. However, Nicoli Conti an Italian ambassador who visited Vijayanagara early 15th century describes two chariots being taken in a procession [2]. Virupaksha Vasantotsava Champu [9] by R.S. Panchamukhi an English translation of Sanskrit work by poet Ahobala who lived in the late 14th Century who mentions about two chariots one pulled by brahmins, the other pulled by merchants and sudras with both the chariots carrying utsava murtis of Shiva and Parvati. This procession also consisted of kings and chiefs, musicians, dancing girls while the watching crowd lining the street raised a huge shout and threw coconuts, dates at the chariots as a token of respect. Vasundhara Filliozat in her book states, ‘As many as three temple chariots (ratha) were drawn by devotees on Virupaksha Street’ [3].

Virupaksha street has over fifty colonnaded mantapa structures flanking it. Michell and Filliozat [5] describe elaborate structures such as double storeyed with balconies and ornamental parapets to have been probably used as royal pavilions for watching the festivities. Domingo Paes has described Virupaksha Street as ‘a street with very beautiful houses with balconies and arcades, in which are sheltered the pilgrims that come to it and there are also houses for the upper classes; the king has a palace in the same street, in which he resides when he visits the pagoda (the pagoda mentioned here would be Virupaksha Temple Gopuram)’ [10]. Filliozat [11] identifies this probable structure on the street and states ‘Towards the end of the street, before taking a turn to go to the river there is a beautiful house which has a royal palatial appearance with balcony, etc. Most probably it was the royal residence and Paes might be referring to this house’.

2.2 Vitthala Temple Complex and Bazaar Street

2.2.1 Vitthala Temple Complex

Shastri and Akki [2] referring to Sastri and Venkataramanayya [12] describe Vitthala temple as existed in the time of Devaraya II based on telugu poem Narasimha Puranam of Haribhatta, that praises Prolaganti Tippa, minister of Praudha Deve Raya for the construction of Bhoga Mantapa at Vitthalapura. Mack [13] speculates this to be a Tuluva dynasty shrine established by Vira Narasimha on or soon after his coronation in 1506. Most of the inscriptions found inside the temple are dated after 1500 AD and refer to Krishnadevaraya [2].

2.2.2 Vitthala Temple Bazaar Street

This Street runs into two main galleries, one running from eastern gopuram of Vitthala temple easterward up to Parankusa Mantapa (referred today as Gejjala Mantapa) and the other running from eastern gopuram of Vitthala temple northwards up to Ramanuja temple (referred as Brahma Vitthala temple). Shastri and Akki [2] have stated the length of the eastward gallery of the street to be 945 m long with a width of 40 m and the northern gallery to be 122 m long and 16.3 m wide.

A number of inscriptions have indicated on the festive events celebrated at Vitthala temple complex and street. Akki and Shastri [2] mention about the inscriptions found inside the temple describing celebrations of festivals like Gokulasthami, Mahanavami, Vijayadasami, Ugadi, Dipavali, Sri Ramanavami, Makara Sankranti, Utitirunalu, etc. in the Vitthala temple. In this work, they further describe the use of different coloured sarees and cloth was used to decorate Vitthala chariot which was pulled up to the Parankusa Mantapa. Mack [13] conjectures a probable route for Vitthala temple procession being led out of eastern gopura of the Vitthala temple and continued in a clockwise circumambulation sequence to Alwar shrines outside Vitthala temple complex. The Pushkarni (temple tank) located on the northern side of the street has a colonnaded gallery all around it and was used for temple rituals such as the teppotsava (flotilla festival).

Scholars [2, 4, 13] have suggested that the colonnaded mantapas have variously served as retail spaces, rest houses for pilgrims and spaces for activities related to procession.

2.3 Krishna Temple Complex and Bazaar Street

2.3.1 Krishna Temple Complex

Robert Sewell [14] states ‘Krishnasvami temple was built by him (referring to Krishna Deva Raya) in 1513 after his successful campaign in the east’. Akki and Shastri [2], Filliozat [15] state that Krishna Deva Raya installed the idol of Bala Krishna brought from Udayagiri in 1513. Presently this temple is in ruins and was deserted after the Vijayanagara empire. Krishna temple complex with the bazaar street and the surrounding environs together formed the Krishnapura located centrally at a city level must have been an area that acted as a major centre and linkage to the Hampi metropolis.

2.3.2 Krishna Temple Bazaar Street

Like the other bazaar streets of Vijayanagara period this street too is lined by colonnaded mantapas on either side and can be reached by a downward flight of steps from the arterial road in front of eastern gopuram of Krishna temple complex. This arterial road that extends from Royal Enclosure to Virupakshapura is identified by Settar [16] as Deverividhi who says that this might have functioned as a major city level link during Vijayanagara period. Akki and Shastri [2] mention the length of the eastward running bazaar street to be not less than 570 m long and 49.5 m wide. Our work carried at Digital Hampi Lab at NID R and D Campus has documented the bazaar street in terms of its extent and the kind of structures found. As per our field study, the bazaar street is around 160 wide (49.5m) and recent excavations have also exposed the cobbled stones that must have paved the street. The excavation work by ASI is still in progress and based on structures seen so far, the length is around 370 mapped with respect to existing plinth available.

There is a Pushkarni (a temple pond) on the Northern side of the Bazaar Street. It has at its centre a free-standing pavilion called the ‘Utsava Mantapa’. The Pushkarni should have functioned as a node for religious activities during festive occasions. During Vijayanagara period Pushkarni was used for rituals such as Teppotsava, Deepotsava held as part of annual and monthly festivals. Settar [17] and Anila Verghese [18] mention Teppotsava festivals being organized within the Pushkarni precincts with the Utsava Murtis of Gods and Goddesses taken around for a boat ride.

3 Architectural Reconstruction

Digitized models were built for five different segments: (i) City level urban map (ii) Virupaksha Bazaar Street (iii) Vitthala Bazaar Street (iv) Krishna Bazaar Street and (v) Achyuta Raya Bazaar Street The work for creating these models is described under two main heads:
  1. 1.

    Building Digitized Models for Hampi City Level Urban Map

  2. 2.

    Architectural Reconstructions of Bazaar Streets.


3.1 Building Digitized Models for Hampi City Level Urban Map

In the beginning, the study focused on understanding the various linkages at an urban level for Hampi metropolis with emphasis on mapping these linkages that connected the various bazaar streets. We studied the various literary sources with the focus to chart old roads, networks, linkages, the extent of temple Bazaar Street, the gateways. Maps from books published by [19], Longhurst [20], Settar [21], Michell and Filliozat [22], Fritz et al. [23], Patil [24] were referred to prepare a comprehensive map of Hampi, as a digital vector file. This map shows the puras around the four temple bazaar street and its environs; the royal enclosure with the surrounding fort wall with its gateways and the Pan Supari Bazaar (royal bazaar); all the geographical features such as hills, river and water channels; the road networks.

3.2 Architectural Reconstruction of Bazaar Streets

We first began with Virupaksha Bazaar Street as it had the maximum number as well as a diverse set of structures. A detailed description of our work pertaining to Reconstruction of Virupaksha Bazaar Street has been published earlier [25]. For the reconstruction of all the three bazaar streets, the following methodology has been followed:
Fig. 1

Digital footprint prepared for Krishna Bazaar Street by placing images of 2D drawings on Google Map

Fig. 2

a Photogrammetry of Krishna Bazaar Pushkarni Gateway b 2D Drawings of existing Pushkarni gateway (part of parapet shown in red is the portion destroyed)

  1. a.

    Preparation of Digital Footprint of Bazaar Streets: The 2D plan drawings of many of the structures of Virupaksha, Vitthala and Krishna Bazaar Street were published in Vijayanagara Architectural Inventory of the Sacred Centre [26]. The scanned images formats of these drawings were placed, scaled, aligned to fit with respective structures seen on Google Maps using Adobe photoshop software to create a footprint of the bazaar street as shown in Fig. 1.

  2. b.

    Identification of various existing structures of bazaar street and photo documentation: The bazaar street footprint prepared (Fig. 2) served as a reference map for field survey to identify the various structures of the bazaar street which was improved by plotting structures seen in recent excavations by ASI. This was more the case for Virupaksha Bazaar Street. When we began our work in March–April 2011, people were occupying these structures for their living and commercial activities which were later vacated due to a court order. Data was collected in the form of photographs for each of the structures of the streets which would include the front view, side views, and close-up photographs of various architectural elements such as plinth, column types, etc. Panoramas were also taken at various points within the temple complexes and the bazaar streets to capture the existing condition of the structures, the tools used being image editing softwares such as Adobe photoshop and Pano VR. The photographs were taken for time periods from 2011 till 2014 and 2015. Our final version of reconstructions for various structures of Virupaksha and Vitthala Bazaar Street are based on our last field in Jan 2014, while that for Krishna Bazaar Street are based on our last field visit in June 2015.

  3. c.
    Measurement of structures and Preparation of 2D drawings:
    • Manual measurements: For each of the structures of Bazaar street manual measurements were taken noting end-to-end dimensions of the structure, column to column spacing and height for each floor.

    • Photogrammetry: There were a few structures which were high and taking manual measurements was not possible. In such cases we collected photogrammetric data for the front fade of double height structures. We took several photos of the structure taken at constant radii from the structure and a reference marker. Autodesk Imagemodeler software was used to process these images and obtain the height of the structure (Fig. 2a). This method did not give good results when the structures had blunt/broken edges as it was difficult to map the points. In the case of Gejjala mantapa in on Vitthala street we sought permission to climb the structures to take manual measurements as a large portion of the shikara superstructure was not seen from the ground level for taking photographs.

      We created 2D CAD drawings using AutoCAD software for all the well preserved and dilapidated structures based on the footprint and manual measurements. For the dilapidated structures, the remains of column shaft or plinth were noted and considered. This street footprint was further improvised with updated data from 2D drawings.

  4. d.
    Categorization of various structures of Virupaksha Bazaar Street: The extent of a structure was based on the overall plinth for that structure. The next step was to categorize the structures identified on each of these Streets into Broad or Main Architectural Typologies based on their distinguishing and common features. Once the typology was identified for the structure the location of the structure whether it was northern, southern, eastern or western was noted. The architectural typology, the location and the number of the structure formed the basis for the nomenclature of each of these structures. The bazaar street structures were classified into six main or broad architectural typologies as follows:
    1. 1

      Saalumantapas or Colonnades as ‘C’ (Northern Colonnade—NC, Southern Colonnade SC and 1, 2 and 3 depending on their numbers)

    2. 2

      Pushkarni as ‘Pu’( Northern Colonnade of Pushkarni NPuC)

    3. 3

      Mantapas as ‘M’ (Northern Mantapa NM, Southern Mantapa—SM)

    4. 4

      Kallubagilu or Gateways as ‘G’ (Northern Gateway NG, Southern Gateway SG)

    5. 5

      Shrines as ‘Sh’ (Northern Shrine NSh, Southern Shrine SSh)

    6. 6

      Free-Standing Pavilions as ‘P’.

  5. e.

    Subcategorization of main architectural typologies: Such a categorization of structures into main architectural typologies would help us reconstruct features for mantapas, colonnades, pavilions, gateways and shrines based on instances found in similar category. To take this further and have a closer relationship within the members of a category subcategories were created for each architectural typology, i.e. sub-architectural typologies as shown in Fig. 3 for the purpose of arriving at reconstructions.

    Virupaksha temple Bazaar Street We found 68 structures on this street and were able to categorize the structures on this street into five main architectural typologies Mantapas, Colonnades, Gateways, Shrines and Pavilions. The temple Pushkarni adjacent and part of the temple complex was not considered as part of the Bazaar Street.

    Vitthala Bazaar Street This street had 40 structures in all including the pushkarni structures. There are many sections that could be considered part of the bazaar street structures like the sections behind and the southern side of Vitthala temple complex along with the other subsidiary shrines/ temples, and along the eastward running section which abruptly stops after pushkarni but we have not taken these into consideration as we did not find clarity in extent of the remains of columns or plinth. Further excavation and research could throw light on the status of these structures. We were able to categorize the structures for this street into 6 main architectural typologies Mantapas, Colonnades, Gateways, Pushkarni, Shrines and Pavilions.

    Krishna Bazaar Street This street had 10 structures in the bazaar street section accessible with the downward flight of steps including the pushkarni. In the case of Krishna Bazaar Street the end point of the street could not be clearly demarked. Presently excavation by ASI is ongoing after clearing the banana plantations that earlier in 2011 occupied this area. We were able to categorize the structures for this street into 6 main architectural typologies Mantapas, Colonnades, Gateways, Pushkarni, and Pavilions. Shrines were not found in the existing structures of this street.

  6. f.

    Reconstructions of various structures of Bazaar Streets: Reconstructions for the various structures of Bazaar Streets were based on architectural typologies and sub-typologies as follows:

    • Reconstructions based on architectural typologies and sub-typologies Case 1: Let us say the existing structure has only remains of plinth or some columns, then first identify the main architectural typology. For example see the extent and shape of plinth and locate a mantapa or column with similar plinth. The features of this mantapa are used to reconstruct the destroyed mantapa in Fig. 4i.

      Case 2: In the existing structure if one of the architectural feature has been destroyed then we would need to identify the sub-architectural typology for this structure. For example if we find that a parapet is missing for a 4-pillared double storeyed with double height pillars, then look for another instance of this sub-typology where parapet is available to reconstruct the destroyed parapet. as shown in Fig. 4ii.

      Case 3: If existing structure has missing architectural elements in a portion and there are also instances of these elements available in another portion, then we can reconstruct missing elements using instances of similar elements available in the structure as shown in Fig. 4iii.

      Case 4: There were a number of structures in bazaar streets such as colonnades and huge double storeyed mantapas where we have not found any instance of parapet. In such cases there is no availability of instances within the main or sub-architectural typologies. Hence we have looked at Vijayanagara style parapet for huge structures as in temple prakara wall parapets to reconstruct parapets for colonnades and huge double storeyed mantapas as shown in Fig. 4iv.

    • Verifying and refining reconstructions for bazaar streets: There are a number of literary resources that describe the bazaar street scenarios of Hampi which have been used for this purpose. Most of these are textual narratives and there is very little visual data available that could be a source for architectural reconstructions. We have looked at a number of field-based visual resources such as murals, stucco work, relief work at temple complexes and bazaar streets and we have so far not found any visual resource depicting bazaars. The only visual resource available were photograph taken by Greenlaw [27] in 1857 and the photographs taken by Edmund Lyon [28] of Virupaksha Street in 1868, available in Online Exhibitions of Bristish Online Library. Based on these two visual resources we improved our reconstructions for southern side mantapas of Virupaksha Street, and the reconstruction of Krishna Pushkarni mantapa and pavilion.

Fig. 3

Main and sub-architectural typologies

Fig. 4

(i), (ii), (iii) and (iv) reconstruction for the four cases

4 Social Life Reconstruction

The next section deals with reconstructions of Social life and visualizing Bazaar Scenarios based on field work and available literary resources.

4.1 Study of Clothing and Material Culture

The methodology considered for the study and arriving at inferences of Clothing style of Vijayanagara period is as detailed below:
Fig. 5

Clothing terms based on literary resources and visualizations

  1. a.

    Study of Literary resources on Social Life and Material Culture Of Vijayanagara: We looked at literary resources [29, 30, 31] on social life and administration Under Vijayanagara to cull out had textual descriptions of socio-cultural activities and Clothing customs of that Period. Next, we looked at publications [32, 33, 34, 35, 36] specifically on clothing and material culture of Vijayanagara period to understand the clothing terms/vocabulary and their visualization as researched by earlier scholars. Next, we corelated the various clothing terms to the clothing form or style and visualized typical clothing culture of this period as shown in Fig. 5. Descriptions on Clothing as reported by Domingo Paes, Abdur Razaak, Nicoli Conti, Nuniz and others gave us further data on the clothing style for each of the classes of Vijayanagara period such as Royalty, Nobility, Common man/woman, etc. for visualization.

  2. b.

    Field Study and analysis of Murals, Stucco and Relief work: We studied murals at Rangamantapa, Virupaksha temple, Hampi; Lepakshi Temple murals; stucco work at gopurams of Virupaksha and Krishna temple; relief work at Mahanavami Dibba and all the bazaar streets of Hampi to understand visual data on clothing and garment styles of Vijayanagara period.

    • Study and analysis of Rangamantapa murals, Virupaksha temple, Hampi: The work by C.T.M Kotraiah [37] dates murals at Rangamantapa, Virupaksha temple, Hampi to the first half of the 16th century’. This mural has 13 main and many sub-panels which depict Sthalpurana, stories from mythology, and a processional scene showing a guru being carried in a palanquin lead by guards and soldiers. The ceiling paintings are bound by vertical paintings on the four edges that show mythical animals, birds, musicians, dancers, devotees including nobility, etc. We looked at both main and sub-panels and mapped the clothing styles together with the colour palette.

    • Study and analysis of Lepakshi murals, Veerabhadraswami temple, Lepakshi: The Lepakshi murals at Veerabhadraswami temple Lepakshi, are regarded as the earliest surviving of the Vijayanagara murals [38]. The photographs for Lepakshi murals provided by IIACD, Bengaluru were manually annotated for information on clothing style and the colour palette for each term of clothing (Fig. 6). After all the panels were analyzed a conclusive colour and texture palette was derived for each clothing term of Vijayanara period that was depicted in the murals as shown in Fig. 7.

    • Study and analysis of Relief work and iconography at Mahanavami Dibba and Bazaar Streets, Hampi: At Mahanavami Dibba, all the sides of the platform and the various tiers were studied and the clothing style mapped for each figure on the platform using photographs which were translated into line drawings using Adobe Illustrator. The same methodology has been used for mapping the various relief work figures found on each of the architectural features such as columns, parapet of mantapas of bazaar streets Virupaksha, Krishna and Vitthala Bazaar Street mantapas. For each mantapa, the columns that show iconography have been identified. All the four sides of such columns have been photographed, and then line drawings along with relief-work seen have been drafted again using Adobe Illustrator software. All the relief work documented belongs to Vijayanag;ara period and there is no reference to them being rebuilt. The figures, their clothing style, the postures and the artifacts if any carried were annotated manually as shown in Fig. 8.

    • Study and analysis of Stucco work at Virupaksha and Krishna temple, Hampi: Study of stucco work on the outer and inner gopurams, main shikhara, parapets seen of the inner courtyard of Virupaksha temple was done. Anila Verghese and Anna L. Dallapicola [39] have stated that the outer eastern gopuram (hiriya gopuram), the inner gopuram (Raya Gopuram); and the Balakrishna temple (Krishna) were constructed during the time of Krishnadevaraya. The work by G. Mitchell and P. B. Wagoner [40] dates the stucco work of Virupaksha temple outer East Gopuras to a later date. The figures depicted in stucco work, the clothing style seen was very similar to the ones we saw in the relief work and iconography at Mahanavami Dibba and Bazaar streets of Hampi. So although it is indicative that the stucco work at Virupaksha might have been rebuilt at a later date, we analyzed these for clothing styles. The figures, their clothing style, the postures and the artifacts if any they carried were annotated manually for each figure using Adobe InDesign software.

Fig. 6

Analysis of clothing style and colour palette as seen for Lepakshi murals

Fig. 7

Compiled data on colour palatte for Purnoruka (form of male clothing style) as seen for Lepakshi murals

Fig. 8

Study of relief work on a mantapa column of Virupaksha Bazaar Street, one with photographs based on which line drawings are prepared

4.2 Visualization of Bazaar Street Scenarios:

A number of textual descriptions for bazaar activities at Hampi were taken and visualized them with people shown in clothing style we derived from our research. The methodology considered for arriving at conjectural visualizations of bazaar street scenarios is detailed for three scenario cases.

  1. a.

    Visualization of Bazaar Street Scenarios: We had reconstructed architectural models along with digital footprint of bazaar streets and had data for clothing style and material culture of Vijayanagara period. Textual descriptions were taken from the books by Robert Sewell, Nilakanta Sastri, Mahalingam, Filliozat, Kotriah and Dallapicola, which contained scenarios mentioned by foreign travelers of Vijayanagara period such as Domingo Paes, Abdur Razaak, Nicoli Conti, Nuniz. These were divided into two broad thematic categories.

    • Everyday Bazaar Streets and activities, items sold: This included statements that described Bazaar Street ambiance such as: ‘...In the beginning the Virupaksha market might have had goods in view of the needs of the Temple.....’ [2]. This we associated with flower, fruits, kumkums being sold in front of the mantapas close to the temple complex.

      We researched to find out about the kinds of flowers available in this period. We found descriptions such as ‘The city of Vijayanagara is said to have had a plentiful supply of flowers, especially roses, at all times in the year. The desire of the people for sweet-scented flowers appears to have been insatiable. They wore them as garlands on their heads and around their necks. Women decorated their hair with different kinds of flowers and Among the flowers that had no fragrance they liked only the lotus. Rose, jasmine, campak, jaji, virajaji, molla, ketaki, etc. were some of the favourite varieties for which people had special fondness’. [41]

      Similarly the Kannada translated version on Amuktamalayada a poem by Krishnadevaraya describes the ladies selling flowers as follows ‘ It describes these women sitting in a sensual manner and creating/making the flower garlands. They talk to one another with a blushing smile that attracted the young men. It seems that these ladies wore sarees as there is description of seere (saree) seragu (pallu) covering their mouth/face to hide their blush. They sprinkled water on the flowers with their hands and when they did so pretending to sprinkle water on the flowers they also sprinkled water on the young men who tried to flirt with them. These flower women flirted with men and sold them flowers for four times the price in gold coins. These flower ladies wore saree that had Kumkum (red) coloured shining border and on their fingers they had rings made of tooth or ivory maybe. They wore Ravike (blouses) that were tightened with strings/knots’. [42]. Figure 9 visualize the bazaar street activities conjuctures based on the textual narratives described above.

    • Bazaar Streets during Rathotsava festival: The ambience described during Rathotsava festival is as follows: ‘...The beginning of the festival was indicated by beating of the drums and gathering then grew so large and thick that there was hardly any space, even for an ant to move. The king of Vidyanagara too was present there. There were many other kings like the king of Kashmir, of Sri Raidesa, Mokshapura, Balari-Nagara, king of Vanechara family, king of Harapura, Bhujanaganagra and many others. By this time the two idols of Siva and Parvati were placed in the car and the Prasada was distributed to all after proper worship. The great sage Vidyaranya got up in the car with his pupils and followers; and the worship of the car and the images of Gods then followed. The Brahmins proceeded to draw forth the car but it did not move. Thereupon, the king was called to propitiate the god. The king came and worshipped the car and taking the rope in his hands, he pulled it and the car moved forth.There was another car presented by merchant, named Pamparya and it was drawn by the merchant and the Sudra classes...’ [9]. From the above for the drum beating scene we saw references in Rangamatapa murals at Virupaksha temple that had a scene of drummers and musical instruments. Based on this the Rathotsava conjectural visualizations were made as shown in Fig. 10.

  2. b.

    Collaborating on immersive walkthrough:We collaborated with Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay team for developing the immersive walkthroughs for Bazaar street scenarios. We sent them the visualizations of a Bazaar Street activities and ambience along with 3D architectural models of one mantapa structure, the character 3D models and probable shots to be demonstrated in the immersive walkthroughs. Based on this the IIT Bombay team developed the immersive walkthrough video that showed Virupaksha Bazaar Street scenario.

Fig. 9

Conjectural visualization with flower and temple goods selling ladies

Fig. 10

Drummers, people and pulling of Ratha during Rathotsava

5 Conclusion and Future Work

The methodology adopted for the Reconstruction of Bazaar Streets has looked at the available instances today that was supposed to be of Vijayanagara period. In some places we have also seen that the Vijayanagara period instances might have been redone or rebuilt. The methodology has been derived in such a way that even in future, we could fine-tune and apply this for the changed instances of Vijayanagara period as we get better informed with further researches in this area. This methodology that looks at both architectural, clothing and social life instances for reconstructions could be applied to other heritage sites in future.



We thank the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India for funding the project ‘Representation of Art, Artifacts and Architecture of Hampi Bazaars from a Design Perspective’ DST No: NRDMS/11/1586/09/Phase- II/Project No 15. The author would like to thank National Institute of Design (NID) for all the institutional support, facilities and the various project appointees who worked at Digital Hampi Lab at NID. We would like to thank the Director NID, Prof. Pradyumna Vyas for all the encouragement in taking this project up at our Institute.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Senior Faculty National Institute of DesignR & D CampusBengaluruIndia

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