Plasma Surface Metallurgy of Intermetallic Compounds

  • Zhong XuEmail author
  • Frank F. Xiong


TiAl and Ti2AlNb as typical intermetallic compounds have better specific strength and high temperature strength than the nickel based alloys. They are the ideal high temperature structural materials in the aerospace industry. But the practical applications of intermetallic compounds are limited due to their poor wear and high temperature oxidation resistance. In this chapter, it is presented that the double glow discharge plasma surface alloying treatment with Nb, Mo, Cr and Ni–Cr–Mo–Nb has been applied to TiAl and Ti2AlNb alloys for improving their properties. The results show that after surface alloying treatments, the wear resistance of the two materials increases, and the high temperature oxidation resistance of TiAl alloy is also greatly improved as well.


  1. 1.
    Chen GL (2000) R&D status and prospect on the ordered structural intermetallics. Mater Rev 14(9):1–5Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Song YQ (2003) Aluminium series structural intermetallic compound and its plasticity and superplasticity. Aeronaut Manuf Technol 7:17–22Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kim YW (1994) Ordered intermetallic alloys, Part III: Gamma titanium aluminides. J Mater 46(7):30–39Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dimiduk DM (1995) Gamma titanium aluminides-an emerging materials technology. In: Kim YW, Wagner R, Yamaguchi M (eds) Gamma titanium aluminides. TMS, Warrendale, pp 3–20Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Xu Z (2008) Plasma surface metallurgy. China Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Liu CT (1995) Resent advances in ordered intermetallics. Mater Chem Phys 42:66–77Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Qian JH, Qi XZ (2002) Application and development of γ-titanium-aluminide alloys. Chin J Rare Met 26(6):477–482Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chen GL (2002) New metallic. Mater Shanghai Met 24(4):1–9Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gogia AK, Nandy TK, Banerjee D (1998) Microstructure and mechanical properties of orthorhombic alloys in the Ti–Al–Nb system. Intermetallics 6:741–748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Banerjee D (1997) The intermetallic Ti2AlNb. Prog Mater Sci 42:135–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sun J, Wu JS, Zhao B (2002) Microstructure, wear and high temperature oxidation resistance of nitrided TiAl based alloys. Mater Sci Eng A329–331:713–717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Clemens H, Rumberg I, Schwantes S (1994) Characterization of Ti–48Al–2Cr. Intermetallics 2(3):179–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Shirai Y, Yamaguchi M (1992) Studies of vacancies and dislocations in TiAl by positron annihilation. Mater Sci Eng 8:229Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lei MK, Zhu XP, Wang XJ (2002) Oxidation resistance of ion-implanted γ-TiAl-base intermetallics. Oxid Met 58(3/4):361–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zheng CL, Xu Z, He ZY (2000) Progress in research on high temperature oxidation resistance of TiAl intermetallics. Mater Rev 16(11):14–16Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Xiong HP, Li XH, Mao W (2003) Improvement of high-temperature oxidation resistance of TiAl-based alloy by siliconizing treatment. Acta Metall Sinica 39(1):66–70Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hawk JA, Alman DE (1997) Abrasive wear of intermetallic-based alloys and composites. Mater Sci Eng A239–240:899–906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wang HM (1997) Surface modification of TiAl intermetallic alloys by laser gas alloying. Acta Metall Sinica 33(9):917–920Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Liu XB, Yu LG, Wang HM (2000) Microstructure and wear resistance of laser surface alloyed composite coatings on TiAl alloy. Trans Nonferrous Met Soc China 10(6):785–789Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Liu XP, Ge PL, You K (2011) Plasma alloying of TiAl with Niobium and its wear resistance. Rare Met Mater Eng 40(11):1891–1896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zheng CL, Cui FZ, Xu Z (2003) Effect of plasma niobizing on oxidation resistance of TiAl intermetallics. Surf Coat Technol 174–175:1014–1017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Guo CL, Liu XP, Ben HF (2008) Oxidation resistance of TiAl alloy treated by plasma Nb-C alloying. Surf Coat Technol 202:1797–1801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Liu XP, Xu Z, Xu W (2005) Plasma surface alloying with molybdenum and carburization of TiAl based alloys. Trans Nonferrous Met Soc Chain 5(3):420–424Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Liu XP, You K, Wang ZX (2013) Effect of Mo-alloyed layer on oxidation behavior of TiAl-based alloy. Vacuum 89:209–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    He ZY, Wang ZX, Zhang F (2013) Oxidation behavior of TiAl alloy treated by plasma surface chromizing process. Surf Coat Technol 228:287–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zheng CL, Xu Z, Xie XS (2003) Effect of NiCrMoNb alloying coating on the oxidation resistance of TiAl intermetallics. Rare Met Mater Eng 32(1):32–36Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Liang WP (2007) Research on double glow plasma molybedenizing/chromizing on Ti2AlNb orthorhombic alloy and their properties. Taiyuan University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Beijing and Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Taiyuan University of TechnologyTaiyuanChina
  2. 2.Heaptech Engineering, Inc.San JoseUSA

Personalised recommendations