Plasma Surface Metallurgy of Iron and Steel

  • Zhong XuEmail author
  • Frank F. Xiong


Iron and steel materials are the most widely used engineering materials with the largest amount of metal materials in modern production and application. To enhance the surface physical and mechanical performance of iron and steel materials, surface engineering modification is applied to coordinate the different performance requirements between the substrate and surface of iron and steel materials. This chapter introduces both the single-element and multiple-element plasma surface metallurgy processes, to form various surface alloys on iron and steel material. In addition, the plasma surface metallurgy superalloys, precipitation hardening stainless steel, and plasma surface metallurgy antibacterial stainless steel formed on the surface of steels is also introduced. The plasma surface alloying parameters, microstructures, composition distribution, and properties of above all surface alloys are presented.


  1. 1.
    Xu Z, Wang ZM, Gu FY (1982) Double glow plasma surface alloying process. Trans Mater. Heat Treat 3(1):71–82Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gu FY, Wang ZM, Fan BH (1985) Double glow plasma surface tungstenizing and subsequent heat treatment process. Heat Treat Met 3:59–64Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zhang H, Su YA, Gu FY, Xu Z (2000) Characteristics of tungsten alloy layer formed at different temperature by double glow plasma surface alloying. J Chin Soc Corros Prot 20(1):59–64Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Xu Z, Gu FY, Fan BH (1986) Double glow plasma surface aluminizing and titanizing. Trans Mater Heat Treat 7(2):95–99Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Xu Z (2008) Plasma surface metallurgy. China Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fan BH, Xu Z, Zheng WN (1987) Double glow plasma surface chromizing. Trans Mater Heat Treat 2:3–8Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gu FY, Wang CZ, Gao Y, Xu Z (1989) Application research of double glow ion aluminizing on exhaust valve. Heat Treat Met 7:27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Qiang B (2012) Research on processing and corrosion resistance of Ta alloyed layers on Q235 steel formed by double glow plasma surface alloying. Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, NanjingGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wang CZ, Su YA, Tang B, Xu Z (1990) The microstructure of alloyed layer treated by double layer ionized W, Mo metalizing and its formation mechanism. Heat Treat Met 2:22–28Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gao Y, Liu XP, He ZY, Xu Z (2000) An analysis on microstructures of alloyed layer by double glow plasma W-Mo alloying process after carburizing. Chin J Nonferrous Met 10(1):55–58Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fan BH, Xu Z, Pan JD (1988) Double glow plasma Nickel-chromium alloying. J Taiyuan Univ Technol 19(3):10–15Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fan BH, Xu Z, Pan JD (1988) Double glow plasma Nickel-chromium alloying. J Taiyuan Univ Technol 19(3):10–15Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Xu JY, Liu YP, Wang JZ (2005) Study on Mo–Cr plasma surface alloying high speed steel and its performance. Mater Rev 19(1):114–116Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhang X, Xie XS, Yang ZM (2003) A study of nickel-based corrosion resisting alloy layer obtained by double glow plasma surface alloying technique. Surf Coat Technol 131:378–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Xu J, He AJ, Shan XS, Xu Z (2003) The multi-element Ni–Cr–Mo–Cu surface alloying layer on the steel using a double glow plasma. Surf Coat Technol 168(2–3):142–147Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Liu XP, Gao Y, Li ZH (2006) Cr-Ni-Mo-Co surface alloyed layer formed by plasma surface alloying in pure iron. Appl Surf Sci 252:3894–3902CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zhang JC (2011) Study on process and properties of antibacterial stainless steel by plasma permeating technique. Guilin University of Electronic Technology, GuilinGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhang XY (2012) Study on preparation and properties of surface antibacterial alloyed layers of stainless steel. Taiyuan University of Technology, TaiyuanGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wang Y (2011) Preparation infiltration layer containing Cerium and Copper in surface of stainless steel and properties of infiltration layer. Guilin University of Electronic Technology, GuilinGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dong Y, Li X, Tian L (2011) Towards long-lasting antibacterial stainless steel surfaces by combining double glow plasma silvering with active screen plasma nitriding. Acta Biomater 7:447–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ni HW, Zhan WT, Chen RS (2011) Microstructure and antibacterial properties of AISI304 stainless steel doped by Ag/Cu. Mater Rev B 25(4):27–29Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Liu YP, Xu JY, Kui XY (2005) Study on structure and property of TiN multi-permeating coatings prepared by plasma discharge technique. Trans Mater Heat Treat 26(6):109–112Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Beijing and Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Taiyuan University of TechnologyTaiyuanChina
  2. 2.Heaptech Engineering, Inc.San JoseUSA

Personalised recommendations