In the long-term industrial engineering development practice, the importance of material performance with its surface condition has attracted a great attention and tremendous development effort. It has been recognized that there are many differences and contradictions between the substrate material and its surface requirements. Over the past 2000 years, a variety of surface engineering technologies has been innovated in order to overcome those contradictions and form an independent high-performance surface engineering system. In this chapter, the classification of all of surface treatment techniques is given, with a brief introduction of the traditional and modern surface alloying technologies. The development history of innovative research of glow discharge and applications of surface plasma nitriding technology are specially reviewed.
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