Role of Public Support in Sports Fan Formation Processes: Approach by Cultural Transmission Model
The consumption activity of watching sports generates an experience value of “being moved.” Through sports, people gain some non-monetary value, such as “being moved” and “being connected” with others, which cannot be replaced by viewing other phenomena. Numerous studies have used the contingent valuation method (CVM) to measure these non-monetary values of “being moved” and “making connections,” which cannot be traded in the market. These studies, examining four North American major sports (hockey, basketball, football, and baseball) or European soccer teams as examples (Castellanos et al., J Sports Econ 12(4):464–486, 2011), measured the non-monetary values that professional sports teams can generate. For instance, Johnson et al. (J Sports Econ 2(1):6–21, 2001) measured the annual intangible value that the Pittsburgh Penguins, an American professional ice hockey league, bestowed upon the local community, calculating its value: as much as 5.27 million dollars (on average, 5.57 USD per household). This value is significantly higher among Penguin fans than among those who are not. Fans not only receive experience values through watching their supported team’s matches; they are also believed to receive other various benefits such as the existential value of the sports team, including the pride of living in the town that has the team.
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