Advertisement

Description and Clinical Exposure of Allergic Plants

  • Jae-Won Oh
Chapter

Abstract

Seed-bearing plants produce their reproductive structures in cones or flowers. Gymnosperms (naked seeds) are trees and shrubs that bear their seeds in cones. Pines, firs, junipers, spruces, yews, hemlocks, savins, cedars, larches, cypresses, retinisporas, and ginkgoes are gymnosperms. Angiosperms produce seeds enclosed in the female reproductive structures of the flower. Angiosperms may be monocotyledons, whose seeds contain one cotyledon, or dicotyledons, with two seed leaves. Leaves of monocotyledons have parallel veins, whereas leaves of dicotyledons have branching veins. Grasses are monocotyledons; most other allergenic plants are dicotyledons.

References

  1. 1.
    Farjon A. World checklist and bibliography of conifers. Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens; 1998.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Price RA, Olsen-Stojkovich J, Lowenstein JM. Relationships among the genera of Pinaceae: an immunological comparison. Syst Bot. 1987;12(1):91–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gastaminza G, Lombardero M, Ansotegui IJ, et al. Alergia a. Pinus radiata: alergenos y reactividad cruzado con otros pinos y gramineas. Allergol Immunol Clin. 2000;15:69–73.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gonzalez EM, Villalba M, Rodriguez R. Allergenic cross-reactivity of olive pollen. Allergy. 2000;55(7):658–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fountain DW, Cornford CA. Aerobiology and allergenicity of Pinus radiata pollen in New Zealand. Grana. 1991;30:71–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cornford CA, Fountain DW, Burr RG. IgE-binding proteins from pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) pollen: evidence for cross-reactivity with ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. 1990;93(1):41–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Freeman GL. Pine pollen allergy in northern Arizona. Ann Allergy. 1993;70(6):491–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bousquet J, Cour P, Guerin B, Michel FB. Allergy in the Mediterranean area. I. Pollen counts and pollinosis of Montpellier. Clin Allergy. 1984;14(3):249–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Marcos C, Rodriguez FJ, Luna I, Jato V, Gonzalez R. Pinus pollen aerobiology and clinical sensitization in northwest Spain. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2001;87(1):39–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Peternel R, Culig J, Mitić B, Vukusić I, Sostar Z. Analysis of airborne pollen concentrations in Zagreb, Croatia, 2002. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2003;10(1):107–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cvitanovic S, Marusic M. Hypersensitivity to pollen allergens on the Adriatic coast. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 1994;4(2):96–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wikipedia Contributors. ‘Beech’, wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese cedar.
  13. 13.
    Aceituno E, Del Pozo V, Mínguez A, Arrieta I, Cortegano I, Cárdaba B, Gallardo S, Rojo M, Palomino P, Lahoz C. Molecular cloning of major allergen from Cupressus arizonica pollen: Cup a 1. Clin Exp Allergy. 2000;30(12):1750–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Midoro-Horiuti T, Goldblum RM, Kurosky A, Goetz DW, Brooks EG. Isolation and characterization of the mountain cedar (Juniperus ashei) pollen major allergen, Jun a 1. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999;104:608–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ito H, Nishimura J, Suzuki M, Mamiya S, Sato K, Takagi I, Baba S. Specific IgE to Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) in patients with nasal allergy. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1995;74:299–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hashimoto M, Nigi H, Sakaguchi M, Inouye S, Imaoka K, Miyazawa H, Taniguchi Y, Kurimoto M, Yasueda H, Ogawa T. Sensitivity to two major allergens (Cry j I and Cry j II) in patients with Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) pollinosis. Clin Exp Allergy. 1995;25(9):848–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sone T, Dairiki K, Morikubo K, Shimizu K, Tsunoo H, Mori T, Kino K. Identification of human T cell epitopes in Japanese cypress pollen allergen, Cha o 1, elucidates the intrinsic mechanism of cross-allergenicity between Cha o 1 and Cry j 1, the major allergen of Japanese cedar pollen, at the T cell level. Clin Exp Allergy. 2005;35(5):664–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kondo Y, Tokuda R, Urisu A, Matsuda T. Assessment of cross-reactivity between Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) pollen and tomato fruit extracts by RAST inhibition and immunoblot inhibition. Clin Exp Allergy. 2002;32(4):590–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Panzani R, Yasueda H, Shimizu T, Shida T. Cross-reactivity between the pollens of Cupressus sempervirens (common cypress) and of Cryptomeria japonica (Japanese Cedar). Ann Allergy. 1986;57(1):26–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kusunoki T, Korematsu S, Nakahata T, Hosoi S. Cedar pollinosis in Japanese school children: results from a large questionnaire-based survey [Japanese]. Arerugi. 2002;51(1):15–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Takasaki K, Enatsu K, Kumagami H, Takahashi H. Relationship between airborne pollen count and treatment outcome in Japanese cedar pollinosis patients. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;266(5):673–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hosoki K, Suga S, Takahashi J, Tanida H, Nagao M, Fujisawa T. Prevalence of allergy in patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities (SMID). Arerugi. 2011;60(7):823–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yonekura S, Okamoto Y, Horiguchi S, Sakurai D, Chazono H, Hanazawa T, Okawa T, Aoki S, Konno A. Effects of aging on the natural history of seasonal allergic rhinitis in middle-aged subjects in South chiba, Japan. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2012;157(1):73–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nagata C, Nakamura K, Fujii K, Kawachi T, Takatsuka N, Oba S, Shimizu H. Soy isoflavone intake is not associated with the development of cedar pollinosis in adults. J Nutr. 2008;138(7):1372–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gotoh M, Okubo K, Hashiguchi K, Wakabayashi K, Kanzaki S, Tanaka N, Fujioka M, Kawashima K, Suematsu K, Sasaki K, Iwasaki M, Yamamotoya H. Noninvasive biological evaluation of response to pranlukast treatment in pediatric patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2012;33(6):459–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chunling W, Tamura K, Matsumoto Y, Endo T, Watari C, Arai T, Murakami M. Effects of quantity of Japanese cedar pollen, air pollution and urbanization on allergic rhinitis morbidity in Ibaraki prefecture [Japanese]. Nippon Koshu Eisei Zasshi. 2002;49(7):631–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Narita S, Shirasaki H, Yamaya H, Mitsuzawa H, Kikuchi K, Kishikawa R, Kobayashi K, Himi T. The pollen survey and dynamic statistics of patients with allergic rhinitis in Hakodate. [Japanese]. Arerugi. 2001;50(5):473–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ozasa K, Dejima K, Takenaka H. Prevalence of Japanese cedar pollinosis among school children in Japan. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2002;128(2):165–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dake Y, Enomoto T, Cheng L, Enomoto K, Shibano A, Ikeda H, Yoda S, Yajin S, Sakota T, Yamanishi E. Effect of antihistamine eye drops on the conjunctival provocation test with Japanese cedar pollen allergen. Allergol Int. 2006;55(4):373–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ueno K, Minoguchi K, Kohno Y, Oda N, Wada K, Miyamoto M, Yokoe T, Hashimoto T, Minoguchi H, Miyamoto M, Yokoe T, Hashimoto T, Minoguchi H, Tanaka A, Kokubu F, Adachi M. Japanese cedar pollinosis is a risk factor for bronchial asthma in Japanese adult asthmatics. [Japanese]. Arerugi. 2002;51(7):565–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yokozeki H, Takayama K, Katayama I, Nishioka K. Japanese cedar pollen as an exacerbation factor in atopic dermatitis: results of atopy patch testing and histological examination. Acta Derm Venereol. 2006;86(2):148–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tanaka A, Minoguchi K, Pawankar R, Adachi M. Asthma in patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis. World Allergy Organ J. 2012;5(Suppl 3):S218–22.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kishikawa R, Koto E, Iwanaga T, So N, Kamori C, Shoji S, Nishima S, Ishikawa T. Long-term study of airborne allergic pollen count, C. Japonica and cupressaceae in Japan. Arerugi. 2001;50(4):369–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Karamloo F, Schmitz N, Scheurer S, Foetisch K, Hoffmann A, Haustein D, Vieths S. Molecular cloning and characterization of a birch pollen minor allergen, Bet v 5, belonging to a family of isoflavone reductase-related proteins. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999;104:991–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wakamori T, Katoh N, Hirano S, Kishimoto S, Ozasa K. Atopic dermatitis, dry skin and serum IgE in children in a community in Japan. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2009;149(2):103–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lee MH, Kim YK, Min KU, Lee BJ, Bahn JW, Son JW, Cho SH, Park HS, Koh YY, Kim YY. Differences in sensitization rates to outdoor aeroallergens, especially citrus red mite (Panonychus citri), between urban and rural children. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2001;86(6):691–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kim J, Hahm MI, Lee SY, Kim WK, Chae Y, Park YM, Han MY, Lee KJ, Kwon HJ, Jung JA, Kim SY, Ahn K. Sensitization to aeroallergens in Korean children: a population-based study in 2010. J Korean Med Sci. 2011;26(9):1165–72.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Jeon B, Lee J, Kim JH, Kim JW, Lee HS, Lee KH. Atopy and sensitization rates to aeroallergens in children and teenagers in Jeju, Korea. Korean J Asthma Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;30(1):14–20.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wikipedia Contributors. ‘Beech’, wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/cypress.
  40. 40.
    Hrabina M, Dumur JP, Sicard H, Viatte A, Andre C. Diagnosis of cypress pollen allergy: in vivo and in vitro standardization of a Juniperus ashei pollen extract. Allergy. 2003;58(8):808–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Arilla MC, Ibarrola I, Garcia R, De La Hoz B, Martinez A, Asturias JA. Quantification of the Major Allergen from Cypress (Cupressus arizonica) Pollen, Cup a 1, by monoclonal antibody-based ELISA. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2004;134(1):10–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Iacovacci P, Afferni C, Barletta B, Tinghino R, Di Felice G, Pini C, Mari A. Juniperus oxycedrus: a new allergenic pollen from the Cupressaceae family. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1998;101:755–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Christenhusz MJM, Byng JW. The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase. Phytotaxa. 2016;261(3):201–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Stevens PF. (2008).Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 9.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wikipedia Contributors. ‘Beech’, wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/willow.
  46. 46.
    Mabberley DJ. The plant book. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1997.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lewis WH, Imber WE. Allergy epidemiology in the St. Louis, Missouri area. III. Trees. Ann Allergy. 1975;35(2):113–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Erkara IP, Cingi C, Ayranci U, Gurbuz KM, Pehlivan S, Tokur S. Skin prick test reactivity in allergic rhinitis patients to airborne pollens. Environ Monit Assess. 2008;151(1-4):401–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Türe C, Böcük H. Analysis of airborne pollen grains in Bilecik, Turkey. Environ Monit Assess. 2008;21:23–7.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Celenk S, Bicakci A. Aerobiological investigation in Bitlis, Turkey. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2005;12(1):87–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bicakci A, Akyalcin H. Analysis of airborne pollen fall in Balikesir, Turkey, 1996-1997. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2000;7(1):5–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Anderson JH. Allergenic airborne pollen and spores in Anchorage, Alaska. Ann Allergy. 1985;54(5):390–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Silva Palacios I, Tormo Molina R, Nunoz Rodriguez AF. Influence of wind direction on pollen concentration in the atmosphere. Int J Biometeorol. 2000;44(3):128–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Li WK, Wang CS. Survey of air-borne allergic pollens in North China: contamination with ragweed. N Engl Reg Allergy Proc. 1986;7(2):134–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Oh JW, Lee HB, Lee HR, Pyun BY, Ahn YM, Kim KY, et al. Aerobiological study of pollen and mold in Seoul, Korea. Allergol Int. 1998;47:263–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Oh JW, Lee HL, Kim JS, Lee KI, Kang IJ, Kim SW, et al. Aerobiological study of pollen and mold in the 10 states of Korea. Pediatr Allergy Respir Dis. 2000;10:22–33.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Weber RW. Cottonwoods. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2003;91(2):A6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Yman L. Botanical relations and immunological cross-reactions in pollen allergy. Uppsala: Cottonwoods. Pharmacia Diagnostics AB; 1978.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Storms WW. Hay fever symptoms from the cotton of the Cottonwood tree. Ann Allergy. 1984;53(3):223–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wodehouse RP. Pollen grains: their structure, identification and significance in science and medicine. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1935. p. 347–54.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Wodehouse RP. Hay fever plants. New York: Hafner Publishing; 1971. p. 72–8.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Lewis WH, Vinay P, Zenger VE. Airborne and allergenic pollen of North America, vol. 207. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press; 1983. p. 85–90.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Dales RE, Cakmak S, Judek S, Coates F. Tree pollen and hospitalization for asthma in urban Canada. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2008;146(3):241–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Wikipedia Contributors. ‘Beech’, wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/birch.
  65. 65.
    Anhoej C, Backer V, Nolte H. Diagnostic evaluation of grass- and birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome. Allergy. 2001;56(6):548–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Osterballe M, Scheller R, Stahl Skov P, Andersen KE, Bindslev-Jensen C. Diagnostic value of scratch-chamber test, skin prick test, histamine release and specific IgE in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple. Allergy. 2003;58(9):950–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Herrmann D, Henzgen M, Frank E, et al. Effect of hyposensitization for tree pollinosis on associated apple allergy. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 1995;5(5):259–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Asero R, Massironi F, Velati C. Detection of prognostic factors for oral allergy syndrome in patients with birch pollen hypersensitivity. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1996;97(2):611–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Enrique E, Cistero-Bahima A, Bartolome B, Alonso R, San Miguel-Moncin MM, Bartra J, Martinez A. Platanus acerifolia pollinosis and food allergy. Allergy. 2002;57(4):351–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Yamagiwa M, Hattori R, Ito Y, Yamamoto S, Kanba M, Tasaki T, Ueda K, Nishizumi T. Birch-pollen sensitization in an area without atmospheric birch pollens. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2002;29(3):261–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Asero R, Mistrello G, Roncarolo D, de Vries SC, Gautier MF, Ciurana CL, Verbeek E, Mohammadi T, Knul-Brettlova V, Akkerdaas JH, et al. Lipid transfer protein: a pan-allergen in plant-derived foods that is highly resistant to pepsin digestion. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2000;122(1):20–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Reekers R, Busche M, Wittmann M, Kapp A, Werfel T. Birch pollen-related foods trigger atopic dermatitis in patients with specific cutaneous T-cell responses to birch pollen antigens. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999;104:466–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Werfel T, Reekers R, Busche M, Schmidt P, Constien A, Wittmann M, Kapp A. Evidence for a birch pollen-specific cutaneous T-cell response in food-responsive atopic dermatitis. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 1999;118(2-4):230–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Werfel T, Reekers R, Busche M, Schmidt P, Constien A, Wittmann M, Kapp A. Association of birch pollen-related food-responsive atopic dermatitis with birch pollen allergen-specific T-cell reactions. Curr Probl Dermatol. 1999;28:18–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Rasanen L, Reunala T, Lehto M, Virtanen E, Arvilommi H. Immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions to birch pollen in patients with atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol. 1992;72(3):193–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    White IR, Calnan CD. Contact urticaria to fruit and birch sensitivity. Contact Dermatitis. 1983;9:164–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Matsson L, Moller C. Gingival inflammatory reactions in children with rhinoconjunctivitis due to birch pollinosis. Scand J Dent Res. 1990;98(6):504–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Eriksson NE, Wihl JA, Arrendal H, Strandhede SO. Tree pollen allergy. III. Cross reactions based on results from skin prick tests and the RAST in hay fever patients. A multi-centre study. Allergy. 1987;42(3):205–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Jeep S, Pilz B, Baisch A, Kleine-Tebbe J, Ohnemus U, Kunkel G. Immunoblot studies in birch pollen-allergic patients with and without fruit hypersensitivity: part II: antibody pattern for fruit extracts. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2001;11(4):264–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ferdousi HA, Dreborg S. Asthma, bronchial hyperreactivity and mediator release in children with birch pollinosis. ECP and EPX levels are not related to bronchial hyperreactivity. Clin Exp Allergy. 1997;27(5):530–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Eriksson NE, Holmen A. Skin prick tests with standardized extracts of inhalant allergens in 7099 adult patients with asthma or rhinitis: cross-sensitizations and relationships to age, sex, month of birth and year of testing. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 1996;6(1):36–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Kalyoncu AF, Stalenheim G. Serum IgE levels and allergic spectra in immigrants to Sweden. Allergy. 1992;47:277–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Moller C, Elsayed S. Seasonal variation of the conjunctival provocation test, total and specific IgE in children with birch pollen allergy. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. 1990;92(3):306–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Karjalainen J, Lindqvist A, Laitinen LA. Seasonal variability of exercise-induced asthma especially outdoors. Effect of birch pollen allergy. Clin Exp Allergy. 1989;19(3):273–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Moller C. Effect of pollen immunotherapy on food hypersensitivity in children with birch pollinosis. Ann Allergy. 1989;62(4):343–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Taudorf E, Moseholm L. Pollen count, symptom and medicine score in birch pollinosis. A mathematical approach. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. 1988;86(2):225–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Petersson G, Dreborg S, Ingestad R. Clinical history, skin prick test and RAST in the diagnosis of birch and timothy pollinosis. Allergy. 1986;41(6):398–407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Moller C, Dreborg S. Cross-reactivity between deciduous trees during immunotherapy. I. In vivo results. Clin Allergy. 1986;16(2):135–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Lowenstein H, Eriksson NE. Hypersensitivity to foods among birch pollen-allergic patients. Immunochemical inhibition studies for evaluation of possible mechanisms. Allergy. 1983;38(8):577–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Eriksson NE, Wihl JA, Arrendal H. Birch pollen-related food hypersensitivity: influence of total and specific IgE levels. A multicenter study. Allergy. 1983;38(5):353–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    D’Amato G, Spieksma FTM, Liccard G, Jager S, Russo M, Kontou-Fili K, et al. Pollen-related allergy in Europe. Allergy. 1998;53:567–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Bottcher MF, Jenmalm MC, Bjorksten B. Immune responses to birch in young children during their first 7 years of life. Clin Exp Allergy. 2002;32(12):1690–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Kihlström A, et al. Exposure to birch pollen in infancy and development of atopic disease in childhood. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002;110:78–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Kihlström A, Lilja G, Pershagen G, Hedlin G. Exposure to high doses of birch pollen during pregnancy, and risk of sensitization and atopic disease in the child [Letter]. Allergy. 2003;58(9):871–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Szepfalusi Z, Huber WD, Ebner C, Granditsch G, Urbanek R. Early sensitization to airborne allergens. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 1995;107(4):595–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Varela S, Mendez J, Gonzalez de la Cuesta C, Iglesias I, Gonzalez C, Menendez M. Characteristics of pollinosis caused by Betula in patients from Ourense (Galicia, Spain). J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2003;13(2):124–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Gotoda H, Maguchi S, Kawahara H, Terayama Y, Fukuda S. Springtime pollinosis and oral allergy syndrome in Sapporo. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2001;28:S49–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Wikipedia Contributors. ‘Beech’, wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/alder.
  99. 99.
    Hauser M, Asam C, Himly M, Palazzo P, Voltolini S, Montanari C, Briza P, Bernardi ML, Mari A, Ferreira F, Wallner M. Bet v 1-like pollen allergens of multiple Fagales species can sensitize atopic individuals. Clin Exp Allergy. 2011;41(12):1804–14.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Ipsen H, Bøwadt H, Janniche H, Nüchel Petersen B, Munch EP, Wihl JA, Løwenstein H. Immunochemical characterization of reference alder (Alnus glutinosa) and hazel (Corylus avellana) pollen extracts and the partial immunochemical identity between the major allergens of alder, birch and hazel pollens. Allergy. 1985;40(7):510–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Ebner C, Ferreira F, Hoffmann K, Hirschwehr R, Schenk S, Szépfalusi Z, Breiteneder H, Parronchi P, Romagnani S, Scheiner O, et al. T cell clones specific for Bet v I, the major birch pollen allergen, crossreact with the major allergens of hazel, Cor a I, and alder, Aln g I. Mol Immunol. 1993;30(15):1323–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Ipsen H, Wihl JA, Petersen BN, Løwenstein H. Specificity mapping of patients IgE response towards the tree pollen major allergens Aln g I, Bet v I and Cor a I. Clin Exp Allergy. 1992;22(3):391–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    van Ree R, van Leeuwen WA, Akkerdaas JH, Aalberse RC. How far can we simplify in vitro diagnostics for Fagales tree pollen allergy? A study with three whole pollen extracts and purified natural and recombinant allergens. Clin Exp Allergy. 1999;29(6):848–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Niederberger V, Pauli G, Grönlund H, Fröschl R, Rumpold H, Kraft D, Valenta R, Spitzauer S. Recombinant birch pollen allergens (rBet v 1 and rBet v 2) contain most of the IgE epitopes present in birch, alder, hornbeam, hazel, and oak pollen: a quantitative IgE inhibition study with sera from different populations. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1998;102:579–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Hoffmann-Sommergruber K, Susani M, Ferreira F, Jertschin P, Ahorn H, Steiner R, Kraft D, Scheiner O, Breiteneder H. High-level expression and purification of the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1. Protein Expr Purif. 1997;9(1):33–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kos T, Hoffmann-Sommergruber K, Ferreira F, Hirschwehr R, Ahorn H, Horak F, Jager S, Sperr W, Kraft D, Scheiner O. Purification, characterization and N-terminal amino acid sequence of a new major allergen from European chestnut pollen--Cas s 1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1993;15(196):1086–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Breiteneder H, Ferreira F, Hoffmann-Sommergruber K, Ebner C, Breitenbach M, Rumpold H, Kraft D, Scheiner O. Four recombinant isoforms of Cor a I, the major allergen of hazel pollen, show different IgE-binding properties. Eur J Biochem. 1993;212(2):355–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Oberhuber C, Bulley SM, Ballmer-Weber BK, Bublin M, Gaier S, DeWitt AM, Briza P, Hofstetter G, Lidholm J, Vieths S, Hoffmann-Sommergruber K. Characterization of Bet v 1-related allergens from kiwifruit relevant for patients with combined kiwifruit and birch pollen allergy. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008;52(Suppl 2):S230–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Eriksson NE. Allergy to pollen from different deciduous trees in Sweden. An investigation with skin tests, provocation tests and the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) in springtime hay fever patients. Allergy. 1978;33(6):299–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Piotrowska K. Comparison of Alnus, Corylus and Betula pollen counts in Lublin (Poland) and Skien (Norway). Ann Agric Environ Med. 2004;11(2):205–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Troise C, Voltolini S, Delbono G, Negrini AC. Allergy to pollens from Betulaceae and Corylaceae in a Mediterranean area (Genoa, Italy)--a ten-year retrospective study. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 1992;2(6):313–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Peternel R, Milanović SM, Hrga I, Mileta T, Culig J. (2007). Incidence of Betulaceae pollen and pollinosis in Zagreb, Croatia, 2002-2005. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2007;14(1):87–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Wikipedia Contributors. ‘Beech’, wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/hazel.
  114. 114.
    Valenta R, Breiteneder H, Petternburger K, Breitenbach M, Rumpold H, Kraft D, Scheiner O. Homology of the major birch-pollen allergen, Bet v I, with the major pollen allergens of alder, hazel, and hornbeam at the nucleic acid level as determined by cross-hybridization. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1991;87(3):677–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Rohac M, Birkner T, Reimitzer I, Bohle B, Steiner R, Breitenbach M, Kraft D, Scheiner O, Gabl F, Rumpold H. The immunological relationship of epitopes on major tree pollen allergens. Mol Immunol. 1991;28(8):897–906.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Wahl R, Schmid Grendelmeier P, Cromwell O, Wüthrich B. In vitro investigation of cross-reactivity between birch and ash pollen allergen extracts. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1996;98(1):99–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Ferreira FD, Hoffmann-Sommergruber K, Breiteneder H, Pettenburger K, Ebner C, Sommergruber W, Steiner R, Bohle B, Sperr WR, Valent P, et al. Purification and characterization of recombinant Bet v I, the major birch pollen allergen. Immunological equivalence to natural Bet v I. J Biol Chem. 1993;268(26):19574–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Schmid-Grendelmeier P. Pollen as the cause of allergies [German]. Ther Umsch. 2001;58(5):285–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Negrini AC, Arobba D. Allergenic pollens and pollinosis in Italy: recent advances. Allergy. 1992;47:371–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Wikipedia Contributors. ‘Beech’, wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/oak.
  121. 121.
    Maeda Y, Ono E, Fukutomi Y, Taniguchi M, Akiyama K. Correlations between Alder specific IgE and Alder-related tree pollen specific IgE by RAST method. Allergol Int. 2008;57(1):79–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Yun YY, Ko SH, Park JW, Hong CS. IgE immune response to Ginkgo biloba pollen. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2000;85(4):298–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Subiza J, Jerez M, Jimenez JA, Narganes MJ, Cabrera M, Varela S, Subiza E. Allergenic pollen pollinosis in Madrid. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1995;96(1):15–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Furuya K. Pollinosis. 3. The significance of Oak (genus Quercus) in pollinosis [Japanese]. Arerugi. 1970;19(12):918–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Park HS, Chung DH, Joo YJ. Survey of airborne pollens in Seoul, Korea. J Korean Med Sci. 1994;9:42–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Bucholtz GA, Lockey RF, Wunderlin RP, Binford LR, Stablein JJ, et al. A three-year aerobiologic pollen survey of the Tampa Bay area, Florida. Ann Allergy. 1991;67(5):534–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Garcia-Mozo H, Galan C, Jato V, Belmonte J, de la Guardia C, Fernandez D, Gutierrez M, Aira M, Roure J, Ruiz L, Trigo M, Dominguez-Vilches E. Quercus pollen season dynamics in the Iberian peninsula: response to meteorological parameters and possible consequences of climate change. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2006;13(2):209–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Bilisik A, Yenigun A, Bicakci A, Eliacik K, Canitez Y, Malyer H, Sapan N. An observation study of airborne pollen fall in Didim (SW Turkey): years 2004-2005. Aerobiologia. 2008;24(1):61–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Wikipedia Contributors. ‘Beech’, wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/beech.
  130. 130.
    Weber RW. American beech. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004;92(5):A-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Yman L. Botanical relations and immunological cross-reactions in pollen allergy. Beech. 2nd ed. Uppsala: Pharmacia Diagnostics AB; 1982.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Weber RW. Cross-reactivity of plant and animal allergens. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2001;21(2-3):153–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Jung K, Schlenvoigt G, Jäger L. Allergologic-immunochemical study of tree and bush pollen. II--Study of the sensitization spectrum of patients with seasonal rhinitis in the spring. Allerg Immunol. 1987;33(4):215–21.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Bohadana AB, Massin N, Wild P, Toamain JP, Engel S, Goutet P. Symptoms, airway responsiveness, and exposure to dust in Beech and Oak Wood workers. Occup Environ Med. 2000;57(4):268–73.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Lin RY, Clauss AE, Bennett ES. Hypersensitivity to common tree pollens in New York City patients. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2002;23(4):253–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Laurent J, Lafay M, Lattanzi B, Le Gall C, Sauvaget J. Evidence for chestnut pollinosis in Paris. Clin Exp Allergy. 1993;23(1):39–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Sutra JP, Ickovic MR, De Luca H, Peltre G, David B. Chestnut pollen counts related to patients pollinosis in Paris. Experientia Suppl. 1987;51:113–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Frankland AW, D’Amato G. Evidence of chestnut pollinosis in Paris [Letter]. Clin Exp Allergy. 1994;24(3):294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    D’Amato G, Cecchi L, Bonini S, Nunes C, Annesi-Maesano I, Behrendt H, Liccardi G, Popov T, van Cauwenberge P. Allergenic pollen and pollen allergy in Europe. Allergy. 2007;62(9):976–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Watson L, Dallwitz MJ. The families of flowering plants: Ulmaceae Mirb; 1992.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Weber RW. Cedar elm. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2006;96(4):A6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Sytsma KJ, Morawetz J, Pires JC, Nepokroeff M, Conti E, Zjhra M, Hall JC, Chase MW. Urticalean rosids: circumscription, rosid ancestry, and phylogenetics based on rbcL, trnL–F, and ndhF sequences. Am J Bot. 2002;89(9):1531–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Kosisky SE, Carpenter GB. Predominant tree aeroallergens of the Washington, DC area: a six year survey (1989-1994). Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1997;78(4):381–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Li J, Huang Y, Lin X, Zhao D, Tan G, Wu J, Zhao C, Zhao J, Spangfort MD, Zhong N, China Alliance of Research on Respiratory Allergic Disease (CARRAD). Influence of degree of specific allergic sensitivity on severity of rhinitis and asthma in Chinese allergic patients. Respir Res. 2011;12:95–102.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Calabria CW, Dice JP, Hagan LL. Prevalence of positive skin test responses to 53 allergens in patients with rhinitis symptoms. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2007;28(4):442–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Simpson BJ. A field guide to Texas trees. Houston: Gulf Publishing Co; 1999. p. 332–6.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Weber RW. Northern hackberry. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2005;94(2):A6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Torri P, Accorsi CA, Bandini Mazzanti M, Zagni AM. A study of airborne Ulmaceae pollen in Modena (northern Italy). J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 1997;16(2-3):227–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Calabria CW, Dietrich J, Hagan L. Comparison of serum-specific IgE (ImmunoCAP) and skin-prick test results for 53 inhalant allergens in patients with chronic rhinitis. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2009;30(4):386–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Asero R, Mistrello G, Roncarolo D, Amato S, van Ree R. A case of allergy to beer showing cross-reactivity between lipid transfer proteins. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2001;87(1):65–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Rachmiel M, Verleger H, Waisel Y, Keynan N, Kivity S, Katz Y. The importance of the Pecan tree pollen in allergic manifestations. Clin Exp Allergy. 1996;26(3):323–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Vergamini S, Valencia-Barrera R, de Antoni Zoppas BC, Perez Morales C, Fernandez-Gonzalez D. Pollen from tree and shrub taxa in the atmosphere of Caxias do Sul (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil). Aerobiologia. 2006;22(2):141–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Lauer I, Miguel-Moncin MS, Abel T, Foetisch K, Hartz C, Fortunato D, Cistero-Bahima A, Vieths S, Scheurer S. Identification of a plane pollen lipid transfer protein (Pla a 3) and its immunological relation to the peach lipid-transfer protein, Pru p 3. Clin Exp Allergy. 2007;37(2):261–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Enrique E, Alonso R, Bartolome B, San Miguel-Moncin M, Bartra J, Fernandez-Parra B, Tella R, Asturias JA, Ibarrola I, Martinez A, Cistero-Bahima A. IgE reactivity to profilin in Platanus acerifolia pollen-sensitized subjects with plant-derived food allergy. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2004;14(4):4–342.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Alonso R, Enrique E, Pineda F, Basagaña M, San Miguel-Moncín MM, Bartra J, Palacios R, Cisteró-Bahíma A. An observational study on outgrowing food allergy during non-birch pollen-specific, subcutaneous immunotherapy. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2007;143(3):185–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Asturias J, Ibarrola I, Eraso E, Arilla M, Martinez A. The major Platanus acerifolia pollen allergen Pla a 1 has sequence homology to invertase inhibitors. Clin Exp Allergy. 2003;33(7):978–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Larramendi CH, Ferrer A, Huertas AJ, Garcia-Abujeta JL, Andreu C, Tella R, Cerda MT, et al. Sensitization to tomato peel and pulp extracts in the Mediterranean Coast of Spain: prevalence and co-sensitization with aeroallergens. Clin Exp Allergy. 2008;38(1):169–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Bousquet J, Hejjaoui A, Becker WM, Cour P, Chanal I, Lebel B, et al. Clinical and immunologic reactivity of patients allergic to grass pollens and to multiple pollen species. I. Clinical and immunologic characteristics. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1991;87(3):737–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Belver MT, Caballero MT, Contreras J, Cabañas R, Sierra E, Madero R, López Serrano MC. Associations among pollen sensitizations from different botanical species in patients living in the northern area of Madrid. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2007;17(3):157–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Hejjaoui A, Ferrando R, Dhivert H, Michel FB, Bousquet J. Systemic reactions occurring during immunotherapy with standardized pollen extracts. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1992;89(5):925–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Subiza J, Cabrera M, Valdivieso R, Subiza JL, Jerez M, Jimenez JA, Narganes MJ, Subiza E. Seasonal asthma caused by airborne Platanus pollen. Clin Exp Allergy. 1994;24(12):1123–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Halonen M, Stern DA, Wright AL, Taussig LM, Martinez FD. Alternaria as a major allergen for asthma in children raised in a desert environment. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997;155(4):1356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Hurtado I, Riegler-Goihman M. Air sampling studies in a tropical area. Four year results. Experientia Suppl. 1987;51:49–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Sneller MR, Hayes HD, Pinnas JL. Pollen changes during five decades of urbanization in Tucson, Arizona. Ann Allergy. 1993;71(6):519–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Subiza J, Jerez M, Jimenez JA, Narganes MJ, Cabrera M, Varela S, Subiza E. Allergenic pollen pollinosis in Madrid. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1995;96(1):1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Singh BP, Singh AB, Nair PK, Gangal SV. Survey of airborne pollen and fungal spores at Dehra Dun, India. Ann Allergy. 1987;59(3):229–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Singh AB, Kumar P. Aeroallergens in clinical practice of allergy in India. An overview. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2003;10(2):131–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Gonzalo-Garjo MA, Tormo-Molina R, Muñoz-Rodríguez AF, Silva-Palacios I. Differences in the spatial distribution of airborne pollen concentrations at different urban locations within a city. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2006;16(1):37–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Garcia-Mozo H, Perez-Badia R, Fernandez-Gonzalez F, Galan C. Airborne pollen sampling in Toledo, Central Spain. Aerobiologia. 2006;22(1):55–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Nitiu DS. Aeropalynologic analysis of La Plata City (Argentina) during a 3-year period. Aerobiologia. 2006;22(1):79–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Lewis WH, Vinay P, Zenger VE. Airborne and allergenic pollen of North America, vol. 210. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press; 1983. p. 90–6.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Wikipedia Contributors. ‘Beech’, wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/linden.
  173. 173.
    Loureiro G, Rabaca M, Blanco B, Andrade S, Chieira C, Pereira C. Aeroallergens sensitization in an allergic paediatric population of Cova da Beira, Portugal. Allergol Immunopathol. 2005;33(4):192–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Yazicioglu M, Oner N, Celtik C, Okutan O, Pala O. Sensitization to common allergens, especially pollens, among children with respiratory allergy in the Trakya region of Turkey. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2004;22(4):183–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Ribeiro H, Oliveira M, Ribeiro N, Cruz A, Ferreira A, Machado H, Reis A, Abreu I. Pollen allergenic potential nature of some trees species: a multidisciplinary approach using aerobiological, immunochemical and hospital admissions data. Environ Res. 2009;109(3):328–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Sousa R, Duque L, Duarte AJ, Gomes CR, Ribeiro H, Cruz A, Esteves da Silva JC, Abreu I. In vitro exposure of Acer negundo pollen to atmospheric levels of SO2 and NO2: effects on allergenicity and germination. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46(4):2406–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Park SH, Lim DH, Son BK, Kim JH, Song YE, Oh IB, Kim YH, Lee KH, Kim SY, Hong SC. Sensitization rates of airborne pollen and mold in children. Korean J Pediatr. 2012;55(9):322–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Cope T, Gray A. Grasses of the British Isles. London: Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland; 2009.Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Kernerman SM, McCullough J, Green J, Ownby DR. Evidence of cross-reactivity between olive, ash, privet, and Russian olive tree pollen allergens. Ann Allergy. 1992;69(6):493–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Bousquet J, Guerin B, Hewitt B, Lim S, Michel FB. Allergy in the Mediterranean area. III: cross reactivity among Oleaceae pollens. Clin Allergy. 1985;15(5):439–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Liccardi G, Russo M, Saggese M, D’Amato M, D’Amato G. Evaluation of serum specific IgE and skin responsiveness to allergenic extracts of Oleaceae pollens (Olea europaea, Fraxinus excelsior and Ligustrum vulgare) in patients with respiratory allergy. Allergol Immunopathol. 1995;23(1):41–6.Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Obispo TM, Melero JA, Carpizo JA, Carreira J, Lombardero M. The main allergen of Olea europaea (Ole e I) is also present in other species of the Oleaceae family. Clin Exp Allergy. 1993;23(4):311–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Pajarón MJ, Vila L, Prieto I, Resano A, Sanz ML, Oehling AK. Cross-reactivity of Olea europaea with other Oleaceae species in allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Allergy. 1997;52(8):829–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Hemmer W, Focke M, Wantke F, Gotz M, Jarisch R, Jager S, Gotz M. Ash (Fraxinus excelsior)-pollen allergy in central Europe: specific role of pollen panallergens and the major allergen of ash pollen, Fra e 1. Allergy. 2000;55(10):923–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Malo JL, Cartier A. Occupational asthma caused by exposure to ash wood dust (Fraxinus americana). Eur Respir J. 1989;2(4):385–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Liccardi G, D’Amato M, D’Amato G. Oleaceae pollinosis: a review. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 1996;111(3):210–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Alché JD, Castro AJ, Jiménez-López JC, Morales S, Zafra A, Hamman-Khalifa AM, Rodríguez-García MI. Differential characteristics of olive pollen from different cultivars: biological and clinical implications. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2007;17(Suppl 1):17–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Wheeler AW. Hypersensitivity to the allergens of the pollen from the olive tree (Olea europaea). Clin Exp Allergy. 1992;22(12):1052–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Gonzalez RM, Cortes C, Carreira J. Un alergeno minoritario del pollen de Olea europaea compartido por cuatro especies communes de gramineas. Rev Esp Allergol Immunol Clin. 1994;9:46–50.Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Carreira J, Obispo T, Lombardero M. Alergenos de Olea Europaea y otras especies relacionadas. Rev Esp Allergol Immunol Clin. 1994;9:46–50.Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Calabozo B, Duffort O, Carpizo JA, Barber D, Polo F. Monoclonal antibodies against the major allergen of Plantago lanceolata pollen, Pla l 1: affinity chromatography purification of the allergen and development of an ELISA method for Pla l 1 measurement. Allergy. 2001;56(5):429–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Soriano JB, Antó JM, Sunyer J, Tobías A, Kogevinas M, Almar E, Muniozguren N, Sánchez JL, Palenciano L, Burney P. Risk of asthma in the general Spanish population attributable to specific immunoresponse. Spanish Group of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Int J Epidemiol. 1999;28(4):728–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Ramadan F, Hamadeh F, Abdelnoor AM. Identification of allergens in a selected group of asthmatics in Lebanon. Eur J Epidemiol. 1998;14(7):687–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Liccardi G, Russo M, Piccolo A, Lobefalo G, Salzillo A, D’Amato M, D’Amato G. The perennial pattern of clinical symptoms in children monosensitized to Olea europaea pollen allergens in comparison with subjects with Parietaria and Gramineae pollinosis. Allergy Asthma Proc. 1997;18(2):99–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Liccardi G, Kordash TR, Russo M, Noschese P, Califano C, D’Amato M, D’Amato G. Why are nasal and bronchial symptoms mostly perennial in patients with monosensitization to Olea europaea pollen allergens? J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 1996;6(6):371–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Azofra J. Olive allergy. Acta Allergol. 2004;59(5):559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Fountain DW. Inhalant allergy in olive, Olea europaea. N Z Med J. 2001;114(1144):523–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Florido JF, Delgado PG, de San Pedro BS, Quiralte J, de Saavedra JM, Peralta V, Valenzuela LR. High levels of Olea europaea pollen and relation with clinical findings. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 1999;119(2):133–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Blanco C, Crespo JF, Cabanas R, Vega A, Lopez C, Martinez F. Olea europaea pollen allergy. Allergy. 1992;47(suppl):77.Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Barber D, Moreno C, Ledesma A, Serrano P, Galán A, Villalba M, Guerra F, Lombardero M, Rodríguez R. Degree of olive pollen exposure and sensitization patterns. Clinical implications. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2007;17(Suppl 1):11–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Clayton WD, Renvoise SA. Genera graminum: grasses of the world. London: Royal Botanic Garden; 1986.Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Jeffrey C. Compositae: introduction with key to tribes. In: Kadereit JW, Jeffrey C, editors. Families and genera of vascular plants, Flowering plants, eudicots, asterales, vol. 8. Berlin: Springer; 2007. p. 61–87.Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Yman L. Pharmacia: allergenic plants. Systematics of common and rare allergens. Version 1.0. CD-ROM. Uppsala: Pharmacia Diagnostics; 2000.Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Hiller KM, Esch RE, Klapper DG. Mapping of an allergenically important determinant of grass group I allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1997;100(3):335–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Duffort O, Quintana J, Ipsen H, Barber D, Polo F. Antigenic similarity among Group 1 allergens from grasses and quantitation ELISA using monoclonal antibodies to Phl p 1. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2007;145:283–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Grobe K, Becker WM, Schlaak M, Petersen A. Grass group I allergens (beta-expansins) are novel, papain-related proteinases. Eur J Biochem. 1999;263(1):33–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Schenk S, Breiteneder H, Susani M, Najafian N, Laffer S, Duchene M, Valenta R, Fischer G, Scheiner O, Kraft D, Ebner C. T cell epitopes of Phl p 1, major pollen allergen of timothy grass (Phleum pratense). Crossreactivity with group I allergens of different grasses. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1996;409:141–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Esch RE, Klapper DG. Cross-reactive and unique Group I antigenic determinants defined by monoclonal antibodies. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1987;78:489–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Gulen F, Zeyrek D, Can D, Altinoz S, Koksoy H, Demir E, Tanac R. Development of new sensitizations in asthmatic children monosensitized to house dust mite by specific immunotherapy. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2007;25(1):7–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Holopainen E, Salo OP, Tarkiainen E, Malmberg H. The most important allergens in allergic rhinitis. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. 1979;360:16–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Freidhoff LR, Ehrlich-Kautzky E, Meyers DA, Marsh DG. A study of the human immune response to Lolium perenne (rye) pollen and its components, Lol p I and Lol p II (Rye I and Rye II). II. Longitudinal variation of antibody levels in relation to symptomatology and pollen exposure and correction of seasonally elevated antibody levels to basal values. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1987;80(5):646–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Pepys J, Roth A, Carroll KB. RAST, skin and nasal tests and the history in grass pollen allergy. Clin Allergy. 1975;5(4):431–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Freidhoff LR, Ehrlich-Kautzky E, Grant JH, Meyers DA, Marsh DG. A study of the human immune response to Lolium perenne (rye) pollen and its components, Lol p I and Lol p II (rye I and rye II). I. Prevalence of reactivity to the allergens and correlations among skin test, IgE antibody, and IgG antibody data. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1986;78(6):1190–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Suphioglu C, Singh MB, Taylor P, Bellomo R, Holmes P, Puy R, Knox RB. Mechanism of grass-pollen-induced asthma. Lancet. 1992;339(8793):569–72.Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Bellomo R, Gigliotti P, Treloar A, Holmes P, Suphioglu C, Singh MB, Knox B. Two consecutive thunderstorm associated epidemics of asthma in the city of Melbourne. The possible role of rye grass pollen. Med J Aust. 1992;156(12):834–7.Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Piccinni MP, Mecacci F, Sampognaro S, Manetti R, Parronchi P, Maggi E, Romagnani S. Aeroallergen sensitization can occur during fetal life. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 1993;102(3):301–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Hirsch T, Neumeister V, Weiland SK, von Mutius E, Hirsch D, Grafe H, Duhme H, Leupold W. Traffic exposure and allergic sensitization against latex in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2000;106(3):573–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Girgis ST, Marks GB, Downs SH, Kolbe A, Car GN, Paton R. Thunderstorm-associated asthma in an inland town in south-eastern Australia. Who is at risk? Eur Respir J. 2000;16(1):3–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Peat JK, Woolcock AJ. Sensitivity to common allergens: relation to respiratory symptoms and bronchial hyper-responsiveness in children from three different climatic areas of Australia. Clin Exp Allergy. 1991;21(5):573–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Sears MR, Herbison GP, Holdaway MD, Hewitt CJ, Flannery EM, Silva PA. The relative risks of sensitivity to grass pollen, house dust mite and cat dander in the development of childhood asthma. Clin Exp Allergy. 1989;19(4):419–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Van Ree R, Driessen MN, Van Leeuwen WA, Stapel SO, Aalberse RC. Variability of crossreactivity of IgE antibodies to group I and V allergens in eight grass pollen species. Clin Exp Allergy. 1992;22(6):611–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Shida T, Akiyama K, Hasegawa M, Maeda Y, Taniguchi M, Mori A, Tomita S, Yamamoto N, Ishii T, Saito A, Yasueda H. Change in skin reactivity to common allergens in allergic patients over a 30-year period. Association with aeroallergen load [Japanese]. Arerugi. 2000;49(11):1074–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Masuda S, Takeuchi K, Yuta A, Okawa C, Ukai K, Sakakura Y. Japanese cedar pollinosis in children in our allergy clinic [Japanese]. Arerugi. 1998;47(11):1182–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Ishizaki T, Fueki R, Saito A, Egawa K, Doi I. A study of skin test with regard to age differences and agreement with positive results from the RAST and ELISA methods [Japanese]. Arerugi. 1992;41:668–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Masuda S, Urisu A, Kondo Y, Ichikawa Y, Horiba F, Tsuruta M, Yasaki T, Ishihara M, Iwata S, Suetsugu S. Allergic individuals to Japanese cedar or orchard grass consist of two subgroups based on the sensitization to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus [Japanese]. Arerugi. 1990;39(6):520–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Pumhirun P, Towiwat P, Mahakit P. Aeroallergen sensitivity of Thai patients with allergic rhinitis. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 1997;15(4):183–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Phillips JW, Bucholtz GA, Fernandez-Caldas E, Bukantz SC, Lockey RF. Bahia grass pollen, a significant aeroallergen: evidence for the lack of clinical cross-reactivity with timothy grass pollen. Ann Allergy. 1989;63:503–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Paggiaro PL, Dente FL, Talini D, Bacci E, Vagaggini B, Giuntini C. Pattern of airway response to allergen extract of Phleum pratensis in asthmatic patients during and outside the pollen season. Respiration. 1990;57(1):51–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Leynaert B, Neukirch C, Jarvis D, Chinn S, Burney P, Neukirch F. European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Does living on a farm during childhood protect against asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopy in adulthood? Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;164:1829–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Garcia-Gonzalez JJ, Vega-Chicote JM, Rico P, del Prado JM, Carmona MJ, Miranda A, Perez-Estrada M, Martin S, Cervera JA, Acebes JM. Prevalence of atopy in students from Malaga, Spain. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1998;80(3):237–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Cuesta-Herranz J, Lazaro M, Figueredo E, Igea JM, Umpierrez A, De-Las-Heras M. Allergy to plant-derived fresh foods in a birch- and ragweed-free area. Clin Exp Allergy. 2000;30(10):1411–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Soriano JB, Tobias A, Kogevinas M, Sunyer J, Saez M, Martinez-Moratalla J, Ramos J, Maldonado JA, Payo F, Anto JM. Atopy and nonspecific bronchial responsiveness. A population-based assessment. Spanish Group of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1996;154:1636–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Kerkhof M, Droste JH, de Monchy JG, Schouten JP, Rijcken B. Distribution of total serum IgE and specific IgE to common aeroallergens by sex and age, and their relationship to each other in a random sample of the Dutch general population aged 20-70 years. Dutch ECRHS Group, European Community Respiratory Health Study. Allergy. 1996;51(11):770–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Seidenberg J, Pajno GB, Bauer CP, La Grutta S, Sieber J. Safety and tolerability of seasonal ultra-rush, high-dose sublingual-swallow immunotherapy in allergic rhinitis to grass and tree pollens: an observational study in 193 children and adolescents. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2009;19(2):125–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Ortolani C, Pastorello E, Moss RB, Hsu YP, Restuccia M, Joppolo G, Miadonna A, Cornelli U, Halpern G, Zanussi C. Grass pollen immunotherapy: a single year double-blind, placebo-controlled study in patients with grass pollen-induced asthma and rhinitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1984;73(2):283–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Ikushima M, Takaoka M, Kawahashi S, Tanno S. An epidemiologic study on prevalence of allergen-specific IgE antibodies in school children living in rural area of Saitama prefecture, Japan [Japanese]. Arerugi. 2006;55(6):632–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Weber RW. Bermuda grass. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2002;88(3):A-6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Adler TR, Beall GN, Heiner DC, Sabharwal UK, et al. Immunologic and clinical correlates of bronchial challenge responses to Bermuda grass pollen extracts. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1985;75:31–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Sompolinsky D, Samra Z, Zavaro A, Barishak Y. Allergen-specific immunoglobulin E antibodies in tears and serum of vernal conjunctivitis patients. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. 1984;75(4):317–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Lombardi E, Stein RT, Wright AL, Morgan WJ, Martinez FD. The relation between physician-diagnosed sinusitis, asthma, and skin test reactivity to allergens in 8-year-old children. Pediatr Pulmonol. 1996;22(3):141–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Barkely TM, Brouillet L, Strother JL. Flora of North America - asteraceae. New York: Oxford University Press; 2006.Google Scholar
  242. 242.
    Funk VA, Fragman-Sapir O. Gymnarrheneae (Gymnarrhenoideae). In: Funk VA, Susanna A, Stuessy T, Bayer R, editors. Systematics, evolution, and biogeography of compositae. Vienna: International Association for Plant Taxonomy; 2009. p. 327–32.Google Scholar
  243. 243.
    Bensch CN, et al. Interference of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus), Palmer amaranth (A. palmeri), and common waterhemp (A. rudis) in soybean. Weed Sci. 2003;51:37–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Taramarcaz P. The Ragweed Invasion. Allergy Clin Immunol Int: J World Allergy Org. 2006;19:35–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Subiza J, Subiza JL, Hinojosa M, Garcia R, Jerez M, Valdivieso R, Subiza E. Anaphylactic reaction after the ingestion of chamomile tea: a study of cross-reactivity with other composite pollens. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1989;84(3):353–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Asero R, Weber B, Mistrello G, Amato S, Madonini E, Cromwell O. Giant ragweed specific immunotherapy is not effective in a proportion of patients sensitized to short ragweed: analysis of the allergenic differences between short and giant ragweed. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005;116(5):5–1041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Pollart SM, Chapman MD, Fiocco GP, Rose G, Platts-Mills TA. Epidemiology of acute asthma: IgE antibodies to common inhalant allergens as a risk factor for emergency room visits. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1989;83(5):875–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Rosenberg GL, Rosenthal RR, Norman PS. Inhalation challenge with ragweed pollen in ragweed-sensitive asthmatics. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1983;71(3):302–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Popa VT. Respiratory allergy to ragweed: correlation of bronchial responses to allergen with bronchial responses to histamine and circulating immunoglobulin E. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1980;65(5):389–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Bruce CA, Norman PS, Rosenthal RR, Lichtenstein LM. The role of ragweed pollen in autumnal asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1977;59(6):449–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Osur SL, Volovitz B, Dickson S, Enck DC, Bernstein JM. Eustachian tube dysfunction in children with ragweed hayfever during natural pollen exposure. Allergy Proc. 1989;10(2):133–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Bagarozzi DA Jr, Potempa J, Travis J. Purification and characterization of an arginine-specific peptidase from ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) pollen. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1998;18(3):363–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Hidvegi T, Schmidt B, Varga L, Dervaderics M, Lantos A, Gonczi Z, Barok J, Otos M, Kirschfink M, Spath P, et al. In vitro complement activation by ragweed allergen extract in the sera of ragweed allergic and non-allergic persons. Immunol Lett. 1995;48(1):65–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Gonczi Z, Varga L, Hidvegi T, Schmidt B, Panya A, Kokai M, Fust G. The severity of clinical symptoms in ragweed-allergic patients is related to the extent of ragweed-induced complement activation in their sera. Allergy. 1997;52(11):1110–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Kato S, Nakai Y, Ohashi Y, Kato M. RAST in diagnosis and therapy of allergic rhinitis. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. 1991;486:209–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Tang RB, Wu KK. Total serum IgE, allergy skin testing, and the radioallergosorbent test for the diagnosis of allergy in asthmatic children. Ann Allergy. 1989;62(5):432–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Williams PB, Siegel C, Portnoy J. Efficacy of a single diagnostic test for sensitization to common inhalant allergens. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2001;86(2):196–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Perera MG, Bernstein IL, Michael JG, Johansson SG. Predictability of the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) in ragweed pollenosis. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1975;111(5):605–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Gergen PJ, Turkeltaub PC, Kovar MG. The prevalence of allergic skin test reactivity to eight common aeroallergens in the U.S. population: results from the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1987;80(5):669–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Boulet LP, Turcotte H, Laprise C, Lavertu C, Bedard PM, Lavoie A, Hebert J. Comparative degree and type of sensitization to common indoor and outdoor allergens in subjects with allergic rhinitis and/or asthma. Clin Exp Allergy. 1997;27(1):52–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Caraballo L, Puerta L, Fernandez-Caldas E, Lockey RF, Martinez B. Sensitization to mite allergens and acute asthma in a tropical environment. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 1998;8(5):281–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Bass DJ, Delpech V, Beard J, Bass P, Walls RS. Late summer and fall (March-May) pollen allergy and respiratory disease in Northern New South Wales, Australia. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2000;85(5):374–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Oh JW, Kang IJ, Kim SW, Kook MH, Kim BS, et al. The correlation between increased sensitization rate to weeds in children and the annual increase in weed pollen in Korea. Allergy Respir Dis. 2006;16:114–21.Google Scholar
  264. 264.
    Park HS, Jung KS, Jee SY, Hong SH, Kim HY, Nahm DH. Are there any links between Hop Japanese pollen and other weed pollens or food allergens on skin prick tests? Allergy Asthma Proc. 2001;22(1):43–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Yamaguchi H. Evaluation of immediate hypersensitivity and environmental factors by intracutaneous skin tests and specific IgE antibodies in allergic children. Part 1. The annual change of immediate hypersensitivity measured by intracutaneous skin tests and radioallergosorbent test [Japanese]. Arerugi. 1993;42(4):571–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Kusunoki T, Korematsu S, Harazaki M, Ito M, Hosoi S. Recent pollen sensitization and its possible involvement in allergic diseases among children in a pediatric allergy clinic [Japanese]. Arerugi. 1999;48(10):1166–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Nardi G, Demasi O, Marchegiani A, Pierdomenico R, Mincigrucci G, Romano B, et al. A study on airborne allergenic pollen content in the atmosphere of Ascoli Piceno. Ann Allergy. 1986;57:193–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Corsico R, Falagiani P, Ariano R, Berra D, Biale C, Bonifazi F, Campi P, Feliziani V, Frenguelli G, Galimberti M, Gallesio MT, Liccardi G, Loreti A, Marcer G, Marcucci F, Meriggi A, Minelli M, Nardelli R, et al. An epidemiological survey on the allergological importance of some emerging pollens in Italy. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2000;10(3):155–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Verini M, Rossi N, Verrotti A, Pelaccia G, Nicodemo A, Chiarelli F. Sensitization to environmental antigens in asthmatic children from a central Italian area. Sci Total Environ. 2001;270(1-3):63–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    D’Amato G, Lobefalo G. Allergenic pollens in the southern Mediterranean area. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1989;83(1):116–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Park HS, Kim MJ, Moon HB. Antigenic relationship between mugwort and ragweed pollens by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. J Korean Med Sci. 1994;9(3):213–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Kim JH, Oh JW, Lee HB, Kim SW, et al. Changes in sensitization rate to weed allergens in children with increased weeds pollen counts in Seoul metropolitan area. J Korean Med Sci. 2012;27:350–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Wagatsuma Y, Kishikawa R, Matsumoto S. Pollen surveys in Sapporo for 6 years during 1992 to 1997 [Japanese]. Arerugi. 2001;50(5):467–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Garcia Ortiz JC, Cosmes PM, Lopez-Asunsolo A. Allergy to foods in patients monosensitized to Artemisia pollen. Allergy. 1996;51(12):927–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Juan AJ, et al. Electrophoretic characterization of Amaranthus L. seed proteins and its systematic implication. Bot J Linn Soc. 2007;155:57–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Sukhorukov AP, Zhang M. Fruit and seed anatomy of chenopodium and related genera (Chenopodioideae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae): implications for evolution and taxonomy. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(4):e61906.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Perrick D, Stafford CT, Armstrong E, DuRant RH. Modification of the fluorescent allergosorbent test as an inhibition assay for determination of cross-reactivity among aeroallergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1991;87(1 Pt 1):98–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Lombardero M, Duffort O, Selles JG, Hernandez J, Carreira J. Cross-reactivity among Chenopodiaceae and Amaranthaceae. Ann Allergy. 1985;54(5):430–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Stern DA, Lohman IC, Wright AL, Taussig LM, Martinez FD, Halonen M. Dynamic changes in sensitization to specific aeroallergens in children raised in a desert environment. Clin Exp Allergy. 2004;34(10):1563–669.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Calabria CW, Dice J. Aeroallergen sensitization rates in military children with rhinitis symptoms. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2007;99(2):161–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Albach DC, Meudt HM, Oxelman B. Piecing together the new Plantaginaceae. Am J Bot. 2005;92(2):297–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Pham NH, Baldo BA. Allergenic relationship between taxonomically diverse pollens. Clin Exp Allergy. 1995;25(7):599–606.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Dowaisan A, Al-Ali S, Khan M, Hijazi Z, Thomson MS, Ezeamuzie CI. Sensitization to aeroallergens among patients with allergic rhinitis in a desert environment. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2000;84(4):433–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Ezeamuzie CI, Thomson MS, Al-Ali S, Dowaisan A, Khan M, Hijazi Z. Asthma in the desert: spectrum of the sensitizing aeroallergens. Allergy. 2000;55(2):157–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Caballero T, Romualdo L, Crespo JF, Pascual C, Munoz-Pereira M, Martin-Esteban M. Cupressaceae pollinosis in the Madrid area. Clin Exp Allergy. 1996;26(2):197–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Kwaasi AA, Parhar RS, Al-Mohanna FA, Harfi HA, Collison KS, Al-Sedairy ST. Aeroallergens and viable microbes in sandstorm dust. Potential triggers of allergic and nonallergic respiratory ailments. Allergy. 1998;53(3):255–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Spieksma FT, Charpin H, Nolard N, Stix E. City spore concentrations in the European Economic Community (EEC). IV. Summer weed pollen (Rumex, Plantago, Chenopodiaceae, Artemisia), 1976 and 1977. Clin Allergy. 1980;10(3):319–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Apostolou EK, Yannitsaros AG. Atmospheric pollen in the area of Athens. Acta Allergol. 1977;32:109–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Morgan MS, Arlian LG, Vyszenski-Moher DL, Deyo J, Kawabata T, Fernandez-Caldas E. English plantain and psyllium: lack of cross-allergenicity by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1995;75(4):351–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Gauss WF, Alarie JP, Karol MH. Workplace allergenicity of a psyllium-containing bulk laxative. Allergy. 1985;40(1):73–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    Rosenberg S, Landay R, Klotz SD, Fireman P. Serum IgE antibodies to psyllium in individuals allergic to psyllium and English plantain. Ann Allergy. 1982;48(5):294–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    Cuesta-Herranz J, Barber D, Blanco C, Cistero-Bahima A, Crespo JF, Fernandez-Rivas M, Fernandez-Sanchez J, Florido JF, Ibanez MD, Rodriguez R, Salcedo G, Garcia BE, et al. Differences among pollen-allergic patients with and without plant food allergy. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2010;153:182–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Barber D, de la TF, Lombardero M, Antepara I, Colas C, Davila I, Tabar AI, Vidal C, Villalba M, Salcedo G, Rodriguez R. Component-resolved diagnosis of pollen allergy based on skin testing with profilin, polcalcin and lipid transfer protein pan-allergens. Clin Exp Allergy. 2009;39(11):1764–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Ruiz-Garcia M, Garcia Del PM, Fernandez-Nieto M, Barber D, Jimeno-Nogales L, Sastre J. Profilin: a relevant aeroallergen? J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128(2):416–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Mohapatra SS, Lockey RF, Polo F. Weed pollen allergens. Clin Allergy Immunol. 2008;21:127–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. 296.
    Weber RW. On the cover. Hop. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2008;100(3):A4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    Ye ST, Qiao B, Wang LL, Yin J, Niu Z, Bao JN, Liu GH. Color Atlas of Air-borne Pollens and Plants in China, vol. 83-85. Beijing: Peking Union Medical College Press; 2004. p. 321–2.Google Scholar
  298. 298.
    Polunin O. Flowers of Europe: a field guide. London: Oxford University Press; 1969. p. 57.Google Scholar
  299. 299.
    Park HS, Nahm DH, Kim HY, Suh YJ, Cho JW, Kim SS, Lee SK, Jung KS. Clinical and immunologic changes after allergen immunotherapy with Hop Japanese pollen. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2001;86(4):444–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    Park HS, Nahm DH, Suh CH, Lee SM, Choi SY, Jung KS, Lee SY, Park K. Evidence of Hop Japanese pollinosis in Korea: IgE sensitization and identification of allergenic components. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1997;100(4):475–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. 301.
    Yin J, Ye S, Zou M, He H, Gu R. An ELISA assay for humulus scandens specific IgE antibodies [Chinese]. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. 1998;20(2):148–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. 302.
    Lewis WH, Dixit AB, Wedner HJ. Aeropollen of weeds of the western United States Gulf Coast. Ann Allergy. 1991;67(1):47–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. 303.
    Freeman CC, Reveal JL. Polygonaceae. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, editor. Flora of North America, vol. 5. New York: Oxford University Press; 2005. p. 216–601.Google Scholar
  304. 304.
    Brandbyge J. Polygonaceae. In: Klaus Kubitzki (ed); Rohwer JG, Bittrich V (vol. eds). The families and genera of vascular plants, vol 2. Berlin: Springer; 1993. p. 531–44.Google Scholar
  305. 305.
    Solomon WR. An appraisal of Rumex pollen as an aeroallergen. J Allergy. 1969;44(1):25–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. 306.
    Dvorin DJ, Lee JJ, Belecanech GA, Goldstein MF, Dunsky EH. A comparative, volumetric survey of airborne pollen in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (1991-1997) and Cherry Hill, New Jersey (1995-1997). Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2001;87(5):394–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. 307.
    Basak P, Arayata R, Brensilver J. Prevalence of specific aeroallergen sensitivity on skin prick test in patients with allergic rhinitis in Westchester County. Internet J Asthma Allergy Immunol. 2008;6(2):201–10.Google Scholar
  308. 308.
    Oh JW, Lee HB, Kang IJ, Kim SW, Park KS, et al. The revised edition of Korean calendar for allergenic pollens. Allergy, Asthma Immunol Res. 2011;3:e65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. 309.
    Bousquet J, Hewitt B, Guerin B, Dhivert H, Michel FB. Allergy in the Mediterranean area. II: cross-allergenicity among Urticaceae pollens (Parietaria and Urtica). Clin Allergy. 1986;16(1):57–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. 310.
    Corbi AL, Cortes C, Bousquet J, Basomba A, Cistero A, Garcia-Selles J, d’Amato G, Carreira J. Allergenic cross-reactivity among pollens of Urticaceae. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. 1985;77(4):377–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. 311.
    Vidal C, Dopazo A, Aira MJ. Parietaria pollinosis in an Atlantic area: clinical and palynological data. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2001;11(2):107–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. 312.
    Galan C, Alcazar P, Carinanos P, Garcia H, Dominguez-Vilches E. Meteorological factors affecting daily urticaceae pollen counts in southwest Spain. Int J Biometeorol. 2000;43(4):191–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. 313.
    Gonzalez Minero FJ, Candau P, Tomas C, Morales J. Daily variation patterns of airborne allergenic pollen in southwestern Spain. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 1998;8(2):89–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. 314.
    Rizzi Longo L, Pizzulin Sauli M, Ganis P. Aerobiology of Urticaceae pollen in Trieste (NE Italy). Aerobiologia. 2004;20(1):53–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. 315.
    Latalowa M, Uruska A, Pedziszewska A, Gora M, Dawidowska A. Diurnal patterns of airborne pollen concentration of the selected tree and herb taxa in Gdansk (northern Poland). Grana. 2005;44(3):192–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. 316.
    Gehrig R. The influence of the hot and dry summer 2003 on the pollen season in Switzerland. Aerobiologia. 2006;22(1):27–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. 317.
    Holgate ST, Jackson L, Watson HK, Ganderton MA. Sensitivity to Parietaria pollen in the Southampton area as determined by skin-prick and RAST tests. Clin Allergy. 1998;18(6):549–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. 318.
    Decco ML, Wendland BI, O’Connell EJ. Volumetric assessment of airborne pollen and spore levels in Rochester, Minnesota, 1992 through 1995. Mayo Clin Proc. 1998;73(3):225–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jae-Won Oh
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of PediatricsHanyang University College of MedicineSeoulRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations