NTMs in Textile and Apparel Industry in Myanmar: Analysis of Impacts of Trade Barriers

  • Khin Thida Nyein
  • Zin Zin Naing


Multilateral trade negotiations have helped substantially reduce tariff rates over the years. Non-tariff measures (NTMs) as policy measures can potentially have an economic effect on international trade in goods, changing quantities traded, or prices or both. Myanmar is at the very beginning stage of listing NTMs exercised in the country, and there has been no systematic collection of the official regulations which could be understood as NTMs. The motivation for selecting the apparel sector as a case study in this context arises due to the significance of this sector in terms of its impact on employment and inclusive growth in Myanmar. The apparel industry achieved its growth throughout the 1990s. It has contributed a considerable percentage to the total export earnings of Myanmar before the economic sanctions by the EU and the United States in 2003. While this sector is not the major sector in driving the country’s exports, its importance comes from the fact that it is a major source of employment, especially for women. Policy corrections suggested in this chapter are expected to improve and create new trade opportunities, higher employment, gender equality and inclusive growth in Myanmar.


  1. ITC. (2016). Trade Performance of Myanmar. Geneva: International Trade Centre (ITC). Available at
  2. Kudo, T. (2013). Myanmar’s Apparel Industry in the New International Environment: Prospects and Challenges (IDE Discussion Paper No. 430). Japan: Institute of Developing Economies (IDE)-Jetro.Google Scholar
  3. Staiger, R. R. (2012). Non-tariff Measures and the WTO (WTO Staff Working Paper Series No. 2012–01). Geneva: World Trade Organisation (WTO).Google Scholar
  4. Survey. (2016). NTM Survey in Myanmar. Yangon: Yangon University of Economics.Google Scholar
  5. UNCTAD. (2013). Non-tariff Measures to Trade: Economic and Policy Issues for Developing Countries. Geneva: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD).Google Scholar
  6. UNCTAD. (2015). International Classification of Non-tariff Measures: 2012 Version. Geneva: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD).Google Scholar
  7. UNCTAD. (2016). Guidelines to Collect Data on Official Non-tariff Measures: January 2016 Version. Geneva: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD).Google Scholar
  8. WTO. (2016). Integrated Trade Intelligence Portal (I-TIP). Geneva: World Trade Organisation (WTO). Available at

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Khin Thida Nyein
    • 1
  • Zin Zin Naing
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of EconomicsMonywa University of EconomicsMonywaMyanmar
  2. 2.Department of Applied EconomicsYangon University of Economics (YUE)YangonMyanmar

Personalised recommendations