Low Development

  • Jinghong Xu
  • Bo Chen
  • Xu Gong
  • Liang MaEmail author
  • Dongping Li
  • Shengjun Sun
  • Jianmin Yao
  • Wei Wang
  • Yijia Yu
  • Qingping Xie
  • Laijin Lu
Part of the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery book series (PRS)


Brachydactylia is a type of autosomal dominant inheritance deformity with the main manifestation of short and deformed phalanges induced by phalangeal and metacarpal dysplasia (Fig. 8.1). Because it was induced by the low development of hands and fingers, it is also called hand and finger dysplasia. It is commonly believed that brachydactylia is mainly associated with genetic factors and environmental factors, and the drug-induced brachydactylia cannot be overlooked. The hand and finger dysplasia can occur independently or appear in many syndromes, such as Apert syndrome and Poland syndrome [1]. This deformity can be manifested as the partial absence of single finger or as the absence of one or more fingers. It can also be accompanied by metacarpal absence, resulting in cleft hand; in severe cases, the whole hand can be absent. In addition to macromelia, nearly all congenital upper limb deformities can be accompanied by hand and finger dysplasia to varying extents. The phalangeal growth plate injuries induced by trauma, infection, etc. often induce brachydactylia. Thumb dysplasia also falls into the category of hand and finger dysplasia. Based on the specificity of the treatment, it is described as a special subject.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. and Zhejiang Science and Technology Publishing House 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jinghong Xu
    • 1
  • Bo Chen
    • 2
  • Xu Gong
    • 3
  • Liang Ma
    • 4
    Email author
  • Dongping Li
    • 5
  • Shengjun Sun
    • 6
  • Jianmin Yao
    • 4
  • Wei Wang
    • 7
  • Yijia Yu
    • 1
  • Qingping Xie
    • 8
  • Laijin Lu
    • 3
  1. 1.The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  2. 2.Plastic Surgery Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical CollegeBeijingChina
  3. 3.Jilin University First HospitalChangchunChina
  4. 4.Hangzhou Plastic Surgery HospitalHangzhouChina
  5. 5.Yiwu Chouzhou HospitalYiwuChina
  6. 6.Taizhou Bo’ai HospitalTaizhouChina
  7. 7.Department of Plastic and Reconstructive SurgeryShanghai Ninth People Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, ShanghaiShanghaiChina
  8. 8.Zhejiang Provincial People’s HospitalHangzhouChina

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