Congenital Tumor of the Hand and Upper Limb

  • Jinghong Xu
  • Jialiang ChenEmail author
  • Qifang He
  • Liulong Zhu
  • Jianmin Yao
Part of the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery book series (PRS)


The bone tumor is classified into two types: primary and secondary. The incidence of primary bone tumor is 2/100,000 to 3/100,000, accounting for about 2% of all the tumors, and it can also be classified into tumor-like lesions, benign type and malignant type. The primary bone tumor is uncommon during the childhood; the commonest type is osteochondroma, followed by chondroma, osteoma, and ossifying fibroma. Generally, osteochondroma grows and becomes large within the initial 10 years, and the development process will end due to the closure of growth plates during the puberty. Generally, it takes a pedicled shape or wide basal shape, the difference in size is great, it is located at the endochondral bone of the long bone, it is commoner in the lower limb bones than in the upper limb bones, and there is a tendency of symmetric occurrence. It is the commonest at the lowest segment of the femur and the upper end of the tibia, followed by the upper end of the humeral bone, the lower end of the radial bone, the lower end of the tibia, and the upper end of the calf bone, it rarely occurs at the short bones and the irregular bones, the occurrence is occasionally seen in the spinal column, spinous process is often involved, and sometimes it can be complicated by other limb deformities. During the first onset, the pediatric patient generally shows no obvious symptoms, so it is often found during the childhood and puberty. Most of the patients visit a doctor due to deformities, hard painless tumor is palpable locally or in multiple sites, and when the tumor squeezes the surrounding nerves and vessels, pain and joint movement disorder can be induced.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. and Zhejiang Science and Technology Publishing House 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jinghong Xu
    • 1
  • Jialiang Chen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Qifang He
    • 2
  • Liulong Zhu
    • 2
  • Jianmin Yao
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Plastic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  2. 2.Hangzhou City First People’s HospitalHangzhouChina
  3. 3.Hangzhou Plastic Surgery HospitalHangzhouChina

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