Development of Phase Change Material-Based Temperature Regulation Facility Inside Protected Agriculture Structure

  • Priyabrata SantraEmail author
  • P. C. Pande
  • A. K. Singh
  • Surendra Poonia
  • D. Mishra
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Proceedings in Energy book series (SPE)


In arid agriculture, protected cultivation inside structures with polythene or shade net as covered material may be found beneficial to avoid aberrant weather conditions. However, significant amount of heat load is generated inside the structure due to high solar irradiation and trapping of outgoing longwave radiation due to protected covers, which lead to uncongenial conditions for sustainable plant growth. With a view to regulating temperature inside the protected cultivation structure, phase change material (PCM)-based temperature regulation facility was tried to develop through laboratory trials and experiments. Mixtures of paraffin liquid and paraffin wax in different ratios were prepared in the laboratory and heat change of the mixture material was recorded during heating and cooling process in a controlled water bath experimental setup. A mixture of paraffin liquid and wax in the ratio 10:1 was found suitable as a phase change material with melting temperature at about 35–38 °C. In the second stage, two heat exchanger structures consisting of GI sheet tank of 6.5 L capacity and aluminium fins attached at both sides of the tank for better heat transfer with air were designed and fabricated and these were tested inside small experimental structures with fibre glass sheet casing and covers. A decrease of inside temperature by 8–10 °C has been observed inside prototype structure with the incorporation of PCM material compared to one without it. Subsequently, the system was kept inside the PV clad enclosure (13.5 m2) and the performance of the enclosure was studied with chilli crop grown inside. The amount of heat stored by a single PCM storage system with 2.5 kg PCM materials was found about 1100–1200 kJ. An estimate indicates that it is sufficient to reduce the inside temperature by 1 °C for four hours if number of air change rate is 30 per hour. However, long-term trials are required to ascertain number of cycles of heating and cooling of the material.


Protected agriculture Arid and semiarid region Phase change material, paraffin wax 


  1. 1.
    V.P. Sethi, K. Sumathy, C. Lee, D.S. Pal, Thermal modeling of solar greenhouse microclimate control: a review on heating technologies. Sol. Energy 96, 56–82 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Z. Pek, L. Hayles, The effect of daily temperature on truss flowering rate of ornamental crops. J. Sci. Food Agric. 84(13), 1671–1674 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    G. Sharan, T. Madhavan, Cropping in semi-arid northwestern India in greenhouse with ground coupling shading and natural ventilation for environmental control. Int. J. Serv. Learn. Agric. 5(1), 148–169 (2010)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    K.S. Kumar, K.N. Tiwari, M.K. Jha, Design and technology for greenhouse cooling in tropical and subtropical regions: a review. Energy Build. 41, 1269–1275 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    M.M. Farid, A.M. Khudhair, S.A.K. Razack, S. Al-Hallaj, A review on phase change energy storage: materials and applications. Energy Convers. Manag. 45, 1597–1615 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    F. Berroug, E.K. Lakhal, Omari, M.El. Faraji, H.El. Qarnia, Thermal performance of a greenhouse with a phase change material north wall. Energy Build. 43, 3027–3035 (2011)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    H. Harrou, L. Guilioni, L. Dufour, C. Dupraz, J. Wery, Microclimate under agrivoltaic systems: is crop growth rate affected in the partial shade of solar panels. Agric. For. Meteorol. 177, 117–132 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    A.M. Khudhair, M.M. Farid, A review on energy conservation in building applications with thermal storage by latent heat using phase change materials. Energy Convers. Manag. 45, 263–275 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Y. Yuan, N. Zhang, W. Tao, X. Cao, Y. He, Fatty acids as phase change materials: a review. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 29, 482–498 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. Sharma, V.V. Tyagi, C.R. Chen, D. Buddhi, Review on thermal energy storage with phase change materials and applications. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 13, 318–345 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M.J. Huang, P.C. Eames, B. Norton, Thermal regulation of building-integrated photovoltaics using phase change materials. Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 47(12), 2715–2733 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    S. Mondal, Phase change materials for smart textiles–An overview. Appl. Therm. Eng. 28(11), 1536–1550 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    P.B. Salunkhe, P.S. Shembekar, A review on effect of phase change material encapsulation on the thermal performance of a system. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 16(8), 5603–5616 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. Karkri, M. Lachheb, Z. Nógellová, B. Boh, B. Sumiga, M.A. AlMaadeed, A. Fethi, I. Krupa, Thermal properties of phase-change materials based on high-density polyethylene filled with micro-encapsulated paraffin wax for thermal energy storage. Energy Build. 88, 144–152 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Priyabrata Santra
    • 1
    Email author
  • P. C. Pande
    • 1
  • A. K. Singh
    • 1
  • Surendra Poonia
    • 1
  • D. Mishra
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Agricultural Engineering for Arid Production SystemsICAR-Central Arid Zone Research InstituteJodhpurIndia

Personalised recommendations