Nanocomposites: Future Trends and Perspectives Towards Affinity Biosensor
Nanocomposite materials are being increasingly developed in the area of affinity biosensors for the diagnosis of multiple infections and diseases for personalised health care. Nanocomposite platforms with high functionalities, high electroactive surface, biocompatibility and multiple attachments charged sites made them as an effective solid support for immobilisation of biomolecules with retained biological activity and desired orientation/confirmation. These nanocomposites made themselves as a part of the transducer and interfaced with bio-recognition for achieving highly enhanced sensing performance. This chapter highlights about nanocomposites and their roles towards development and improvement of affinity biosensors.
KeywordsElectrochemical biosensor Nanocomposite Affinity biosensors Immunosensors DNA sensors
The authors are thankful to the VFSTR University Management, Guntur, for providing the necessary facilities. Author AKG is thankful to the publishers for granting permission to reuse figures.
In this technique, current response is monitored with a fixed potential. It uses three-electrode systems, i.e. a working electrode, a reference electrode and a counter-electrode. In this technique, current is measured between working and the counter-electrode by applying the potential between working and reference electrodes.
A process in which a substance is heated above the recrystallisation temperature maintained at a suitable temperature and then cooled. Annealing is used for recrystallisation and grain growth.
An electrolytic method with Hg (mercury) electrode forms amalgam with metal ions in solution by reduction at a positive potential. In this voltammetric technique, the solution is to be stirred in order to overcome the deficiency of metal ions near the electrode as much as possible for amalgam formation.
These are globulin proteins and used for identifying and neutralising antigens by immune defence system.
It is a macromolecule (nucleic acid) and tightly binds with molecular target specifically. Its length is typically 15–40 nucleotides long in a linear sequence of A, G, T, C and U similar to other nucleic acids.
Atomic force microscope (AFM) is a high-resolution microscopy with mechanical scanning probe (cantilever) which interacts with the surface in various modes and gathered.
The bandgap is energy gap in eV between the valence band and conduction band in case of insulators and semiconductors.
A type of catalysis where natural catalysts (such as proteins and enzymes) are used to perform chemical reactions.
The biosensor is a combination of the transducer (physicochemical detector) and biological recognition component. It is used for analyte detection.
This is a very attractive alternative to a common mercury electrode used for adsorptive stripping voltammetric measurements of trace metals.
This is the capability of the capacitor to store charge on either plate separated by applied voltage.
Chitosan is a combination of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine and β-(1–4)-linked d-glucosamine which is acetylated and deacetylated unit, respectively. Commercially, it is linear polysaccharide and produced by deacetylation of chitin deacetylation process. Chitin is found as a structural unit in crustacean’s exoskeleton.
Cross-linkers are the agents which make chemical bonds between two or more molecules by means of interaction of their active groups with other groups including amines and sulfhydryl groups. They are generally used in the analysis of structure and function of protein, to anchor proteins to solid supports. They are divided into two types, viz. homobifunctional and heterobifunctional. Homobifunctional are used in one-step reactions, whereas heterobifunctional is used in two-step reactions.
Cyclic voltammetry is one of the the most frequently used electrochemical techniques for measuring electrochemical properties of a redox species in solution by applying repetitive triangular excitation signal in the form of potential onto the working electrode in order to sweep (in cyclic mode) between two values. In this technique, current Vs. the potential graph is plotted which is known as cyclic voltammogram.
Differential-pulse voltammetry is an electrochemical measurement technique in which applied potential is in the form of pulse and current is measured at the end of each pulse.
Electrical conductivity is a material’s properties, and it is a measurement of current when a potential difference is applied across conducting materials.
ELISA is an immunoassay technique and stands for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This bioassay technique is used in immunosensor.
It is an electron–hole bound pair and forms after absorption of a photon in the semiconductor which resulted into excitation of an electron from the valence band to conduction band. Thus the hole created in valence band after excitation of electron attracts another electron due to developed Coulomb force.
FESEM works near atomic resolution and is used in materials science mainly for topography study and their electronic properties.
This is a redox cofactor and derivative of vitamin B2. It has two different redox states and interchange between these two states during its biochemical activity. FAD is also used as a prosthetic group for electron-transfer process in several oxidoreductases enzyme and protein such as flavoenzymes or flavoproteins that functions in electron transfer.
Ion-selective electrodes are used in potentiometric techniques and respond to an ion selectively in presence of other ions.
Isoelectric potential (IEP) corresponds to pH at which a metal oxide/enzyme has a net electrical charge equal to zero.
Nafion is a sulfonated tetrafluoroethylene-based copolymer in which perfluoro vinyl ether groups terminated with sulfonate groups are incorporated into tetrafluoroethylene which is considered as the backbone in Nafion. It possesses ionic properties for the above-mentioned reason and, hence, also known as ionomers. Nafion has good mechanical and thermal stability. And this is the reason of Nafion acts as a good proton conductor.
The oligonucleotide is a short polymer of 2–20 nucleotides.
The redox mediator is the mediator which is used in redox reactions to facilitate the electron-transfer reaction by interaction with redox enzyme. The redox mediator is different from redox enzyme in their hydrophilicity. Examples are TCNQ, Ferrocene, TTF, etc.
This is a voltammetric technique and can also be used as a particular type of differential-pulse voltammetry in which equal time is spent at the potential of ramped baseline and of the superimposed pulse.
- Akita H, Kobayashi H (1999) Studies on the molecular composite. III. Nanocomposites consisting of poly (P-phenylene benzobisthiazole) and thermoplastic polyamide. J Eur Ceram Soc 37(3):09–218Google Scholar
- Akita H, Kobayashi H, Hattori T, Kagawa K (1999) Studies on the molecular composite. II. Processing of molecular composites using copolymers consisting of a precursor of poly (P-phenylene benzobisthiazole) and aromatic polyamide. J Eur Ceram Soc 37(3):199–207Google Scholar
- Anees A, Ansari M, Alsalhi MSA, Aldwayyan AS (2010) Nanostructured metal oxides based enzymatic electrochemical biosensors. In: Serra PA (ed) Biosensors. InTech, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Bard AJ, Faulkner LR (1980) Fundamentals and applications, 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Barsoukov E, Macdonald JR (eds) (2005) Impedance spectroscopy theory, experiment applications. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
- Bestetti G, Chen B, Day R, Turner APF (1997) Design synthesis of molecular receptor for triazine metabolites, The 5th European Workshop on Biosensors for Environment Monitoring Stability of Biosensors, May, Munich, GermanyGoogle Scholar
- Bilitewski U (1998) Simultaneous determination of several analytes using immunochemical techniques – an overview food technology. Biotechnology 36(2):135–144Google Scholar
- Chang JH, An Y (2002) Nanocomposites of polyurethane with various organoclays: thermomechanical properties, morphology, and gas permeability. J Eur Ceram Soc 40(7):670–677Google Scholar
- Eggins BR (2002) Chemical sensors biosensors. Wiley, West SussexGoogle Scholar
- Gabl R, Feucht HD, Zeininger H, Eckstein G, Schreiter M, Primig R, Pitzer D, Wersing W (2004) First results on label-free detection of DNA and protein molecule using a novel integrated sensor technology based on gravimetric detection principles. Biosens Bioelectron 19:615–620PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hagfeldt A, Gratzel M (1995) Light-induced redox reactions in nanocrystalline systems. Chem Rev 49:95Google Scholar
- Hock B (1997) Antibodies for immunosensors-a review. Anal Chim Acta 347(1–2):117–186Google Scholar
- Kamahori M, Ishige Y, Shimoda M (2008) Detection of DNA hybridization and extension reactions by an extended-gate field effect transistor: characterizations of immobilised DNA-probes and role of applying a superimposed high-frequency voltage onto a reference electrode. Biosens Bioelectron 23:1046PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Katz E, Willner I (1997) Capacitance measurements of antibody-antigen interactions in a flow system. Electroanalysis 69:3651Google Scholar
- Kissinger PT, Heineman WR (1984) Laboratory techniques in electroanalytical chemistry. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Lasia A (1999) Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and its applications. In: O’M Bockris J, White R (eds) Modern aspects of electrochemistry. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Liaw HW, Chen JM, Tsai YC (2006) Development of an amperometric ethanol biosensor based on a multiwalled carbon nanotube-Nafion-alcohol dehydrogenase nanobiocomposite. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 6(2396–2402):9Google Scholar
- Mackerle J (2005) Nanomaterials, nanomechanics and finite elements: a bibliography (1994–2004). Mater Sci Eng 13:123Google Scholar
- Marco MP, Gee S, Hammock BD (1995) Immunochemical techniques for environmental analysis. Trends Anal Chem 14:341–350Google Scholar
- Masarik M, Kizek R, Kramer KJ, Billova S, Brazdova M, Vacek J, Bailey M, Jelen F, Howard JA (2003) Application of avidin-biotin technology and adsorptive transfer stripping square-wave voltammetry for detection of DNA hybridization and avidin in transgenic avidin maize. Anal Chem 75:2663PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mishra SB, Mishra AK, Tiwari A (2011) In: Li S, Singh J, Li H, Banerjee IA (eds) Biosensor nanomaterials. Nanocomposites and their Biosensor Applications. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co KGaA, pp 237–246, ISBN: 978-3-527-32841-3Google Scholar
- Murray CB, Kagan CR, Bawendi MG (1991) Synthesis and characterization of monodisperse nanocrystals and close-packed nanocrystal assemblies. Annu Rev Mater Sci 545–610:30Google Scholar
- Newman JD, Tigwell LJ, Warner PJ (1998) Biotechnology strategies in healthcare: a transatlantic perspective financial times report, JuneGoogle Scholar
- Oesch U, Amman D, Simon W (1986) Ion-selective membrane electrodes for clinical use. Clin Chem 38:1448Google Scholar
- Prasad R (2014) Synthesis of silver nanoparticles in photosynthetic plants. J Nanopart, Article ID 963961, http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/963961
- Prasad R, Bhattacharyya A, Nguyen QD (2017) Nanotechnology in sustainable agriculture: recent developments, challenges, and perspectives. Front Microbiol 8:1014. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01014
- Sharma MK, Rao VK, Agarwal GS, Rai GP, Gopalan N, Prakash S, Sharma SK, Vijayaraghavan R (2008) Highly sensitive amperometric immunosensor for detection of Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 in serum of humans with malaria: comparison with a commercial kit. J Clin Microbiol 46:3759PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Stephens SK, Cullen DC, Warner PJ (1997) Novel detection systems for rapid assays in the food industry. Eur Food Drink Rev:83–88Google Scholar
- Suleiman AA, Guilbault GG (1994) Biosensors: current future prospects. In: Wagner G, Guilbault GG (eds) Food biosensor analysis. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 1–13Google Scholar
- Tan L, Chen Y, Yang H, Shi Y, Si J, Yang G, Wu Z, Wang P, Lu X, Bai H, Yang Y (2009) Alpha-1-fetoprotein antibody functionalized Au nanoparticles: catalytic labels for the electrochemical detection of α-1-fetoprotein based on TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized with ionic liquid. Sensors Actuators B 142:316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tothill IE, Turner APF (1998) Proceedings series towards livestock disease diagnosis and control in the 21st century (STI/PUB/1023); Biosensors: New developments opportunities in the diagnosis of livestock diseases. Int At Energy Agency (IAEA-SM-348) 8:79–94Google Scholar
- Umezawa Y, Buhmann P, Umezawa K, Hamada N (2002) Potentiometric coefficients of ion-selective electrodes. Part III. Organic ions (IUPAC technical report). Pure Appl Chem 74:995Google Scholar
- Upadhyay S, Rao GR, Sharma MK, Bhattacharya BK, Rao VK, Vijayaraghavan R (2009) Immobilization of acetylcholinesterase-choline oxidase on a gold-platinum bimetallic nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode for the sensitive detection of organophosphate pesticides, carbamates and nerve agents. Biosens Bioelectron 25:832PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wang J (1985) Stripping analysis: principles, instrumentation and applications. VCH Publishers, Deerfield BeachGoogle Scholar
- Wang JX, Sun XW, Wei A, Lei Y, Cai XP, Li CM, Dong ZL (2006a) Zinc oxide nanocomb biosensor for glucose detection. Appl Phys Lett 88:2333106Google Scholar
- Warren W, Wheat T, Knudsen P (1991) Rapid analysis quantitation of PCR products by HPLC. J Biotechniques 11:250–255Google Scholar
- Zhang Z, Xia S, Leonard D, Renault NJ, Zhang J, Bessueille F, Goepfert Y, Wang X, Chena L, Zhu Z, Zhao J, Almeida MG, Silveira CM (2009) A novel nitrite biosensor based on conductometric electrode modified with cytochrome c nitrite reductase composite membrane. Biosens Bioelectron 24:1574PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar