Advertisement

Fluoride Contamination in Groundwater: A Pilot Study on Dug Well Recharge System for In situ Mitigation

  • L. ElangoEmail author
  • G. Jagadeshan
Chapter
  • 435 Downloads
Part of the Springer Hydrogeology book series (SPRINGERHYDRO)

Abstract

Dissolved ions concentration in groundwater beyond the recommended limits is a major problem as they make the water unsuitable for drinking purpose. Fluorine commonly found in certain rocks is released into groundwater due to the processes of rock–water interaction. This leads to increase in the concentration of fluoride in groundwater which is a major problem in several parts of the world including India. Presence of fluoride beyond the prescribed limits causes health problems to humans due to prolonged consumption of water, which is common in many parts of India. Dental and skeletal fluorosis is observed due to prolonged drinking of water with fluoride concentration above 1.5 mg/l. The objective of the study is to know how fluoride get released from the host rock and spot out suitable location for installing a dug well recharge system to decrease the fluoride concentration in groundwater. Several methodologies exist for in situ or exsitu removal of fluoride from groundwater. Exsitu methods can be enforced at community level or even at household level for the reduction of fluoride before its consumption, through ion exchange, reverse osmosis, adsorption, electrodialysis, coagulation, Nalgonda technique, electrodialysis, coagulation, precipitation, etc. Even artificial recharging structures can also be built in suitable location for diluting fluorite concentration in groundwater. Rainwater harvesting is also found effective to reduce the fluoride concentration of groundwater in existing wells. A pilot study was carried out by construction of a dug well recharge system in Dharmapuri district, Tamil Nadu, India. The study successfully demonstrated the applicability of dug well recharge system at a carefully selected site based on the systematic long-term hydrogeochemical studies to solve the problem of fluoride contamination affecting millions of rural people.

Keywords

Groundwater Fluoride contamination Rainwater harvesting Hard rock aquifers Geogenic contamination 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the University of Grant Commission, New Delhi, for the financial support under Centre with Potential for Excellence in Environmental Sciences scheme (CPEPA Grant no. F. No. 1-9/2002 NS/PE). Authors also thank the Jai-Kranti Abhiyan scheme of the Ministry of Water Resources, Government of India and Dipankar Saha, Member, CGWB, for motivating them to prepare this chapter.

References

  1. Agarwal V, Vaish AK, Vaish P (1997) Ground water quality: focus on fluoride and fluorosis in Rajasthan. Curr Sci 73(9):743–746Google Scholar
  2. Ali S, Thakur SK, Sarkar S, Shekhar S (2016) Worldwide contamination of water by fluoride. Environ Chem Lett. doi: 10.1007/s10311-016-0563-5 Google Scholar
  3. Bhagavan SV, Raghu V (2005) Utility of check dams in dilution of fluoride concentration in ground water and the resultant analysis of blood serum and urine of villagers, Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Environ Geochem Health 27:97–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. BIS (2012) Bureau of Indian standards drinking water-specification. IS: 10500, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  5. Brindha K, Elango L (2011) Fluoride in groundwater: causes, implications and mitigation measures fluoride properties. Appl Environ Manag 111–136Google Scholar
  6. Brindha K, Jagadeshan G, Kalpana L, Elango L (2016) Fluoride in weathered rock aquifers of southern India: managed aquifer recharge for mitigation. Environ Sci Pollut Res. doi: 10.1007/s11356-016-6069-7 Google Scholar
  7. Carroll D (1962) Rainwater as a chemical agent of geological processes—a review. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1535-G, p 18Google Scholar
  8. David E, Reisner T, Pradeep (2014) Aquananotechnology. Global Prospects CRC Press, Science, p 887Google Scholar
  9. Farooq SH, Chandrasekharam D, Norra S, Berner Z, Eiche E, Thambidurai P, Stüben D (2011) Temporal variations in arsenic concentration in the groundwater of Murshidabad District, West Bengal, India. Water Res 44:5575–5578Google Scholar
  10. Fawell J, Bailey K, Chilton J, Dahi E, Fewtrell L, Magara Y (2006) Fluoride in drinking water. WHO, IWA Publishing, pp 1–144Google Scholar
  11. Gaciri SJ, Davies TC (1993) The occurrence and geochemistry of fluoride in some natural waters of Kenya. J Hydrol 143:395–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gaumat MM, Rastogi R, Misra MM (1992) Fluoride level in shallow groundwater in central part of Uttar Pradesh. Bhu-Jal News 7(2 & 3):17–19Google Scholar
  13. Gupta SK, Deshpande RD (1998) Depleting Groundwater levels and increasing fluoride concentration in villages of Mehsana District, Gujarat, India. Cost to Economy and Health, Water Resource and Research Foundation, Ahmadabad, p 74Google Scholar
  14. Haidouti C (1991) Fluoride distribution in soils in the vicinity of a point emission source in Greece. Geoderma 49:129–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jagadeshan G (2015) Geochemical reaction responsible for fluoride rich groundwater and remediation by induced recharge in Vaniyar River Basin, Tamil Nadu. Ph.D. thesis, Anna University, Chennai, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  16. Jagadeshan G, Kalpana L, Elango L (2015a) Major ion signatures for identification of geochemical reactions responsible for release of fluoride from geogenic sources to groundwater and associated risk in Vaniyar River basin, Dharmapuri district, Tamil Nadu, India. Environ Earth Sci 73(7):67–80Google Scholar
  17. Jagadeshan G, Kalpana L, Elango L (2015b) Hydrogeochemistry of high fluoride groundwater in hard rock aquifer in a part of Vaniyar River basin, Tamil Nadu, India. Geochem Int 53(6):554–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kundu N, Panigrahi MK, Tripathy S, Munshi S, Powell MA, Hart BR (2001) Geochemical appraisal of fluoride contamination of groundwater in the Nayagarh District of Orissa, India. Environ Geol 41:451–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mukherjee A, Saha D, Harvey CF, Taylor RG, Ahmed KM, Bhanja SN (2015) Groundwater systems of the Indian Sub-Continent. J Hydrol Reg Stud (New online journal of Journal of Hydrology, whose Impact Factor is 3.053). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrh.2015.03.005
  20. Pettenati M, Picot CG, Thiery D, Boisson A, Alazard M, Perrin J, Dewandel B, Maréchal JC, Ahmed S, Kloppmann W (2014) Water quality evolution during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) in Indian crystalline basement aquifers: reactive transport modeling in the critical zone. Procedia Earth Planet Sci 10:82–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Raju NJ, Dey S, Das K (2009) Fluoride contamination in ground waters of Sonbhadra district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Curr Sci 96:979–985Google Scholar
  22. Ramamohana Rao NV, Suryaprakasa Rao K, Schuiling RD (1993) Fluorine distribution in waters of Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Environ Geol 21:84–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rolland A, Muralidharan D, Rangarajan R, Sathyanarayana U, Deshmukh SD (2011) Mitigation of fluoride problem through artificial recharge strategies, case study from Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh. J Geol Soc India 2:45–53Google Scholar
  24. Saha D (2009) Arsenic groundwater contamination in parts of middle Ganga plain, Bihar. Curr Sci 97(6)Google Scholar
  25. Saha D, Alam F (2014) Groundwater vulnerability assessment using DRASTIC and pesticide DRASTIC models in intense agriculture area of the gangetic plains. Environ Monit Assess, India. doi: 10.1007/s10661-014-4041-x Google Scholar
  26. Saha D, Dhar YR, Sikdar PK (2008) Geochemical evolution of groundwater in the pleistocene aquifers of South Ganga Plain, Bihar. J Geol Soc India 71:473–482Google Scholar
  27. Selvam S (2015) A preliminary investigation of lithogenic and anthropogenic influence over fluoride ion chemistry in the groundwater of the southern coastal city, Tamil Nadu, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  28. Shan H, Ting L, Chuanyong J (2013) Principal component analysis of fluoride geochemistry of groundwater in Shanxi and Inner Mongolia, China. J Geochem Explor 135:124–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. UNICEF (2009) Position on water fluoridation. Fluoride in water: an overview. http://www.nofluoride.com/Unicef_fluor.cfm
  30. WHO (2002) Fluorides, Geneva, World Health Organization. Environmental Health Criteria, pp 227, 268Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeologyAnna UniversityChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations