Co-solving Groundwater Depletion and Seasonal Flooding Through an Innovative Managed Aquifer Recharge Approach: Converting Pilot to a Regional Solution in the Ram Ganga Sub-basin

  • Prasun K. GangopadhyayEmail author
  • Bharat R. Sharma
  • Paul Pavelic
Part of the Springer Hydrogeology book series (SPRINGERHYDRO)


Climate induced extreme events such as floods and droughts are often disastrous in incidences and affects Indian economy often. Low per capita surface water storage (225 m3/capita1), few sites for additional storages facilities and depleting groundwater aquifers reduce the resilience of the communities to alleviate the day-to-day short age and larger seasonal shocks. India has a long history of storing and recharging runoff waters through community participation. Ongoing such programs are focused on drought-prone or socio-economically weak areas and exclude the flood prone zones. The present study aims to improve the groundwater resources availability through diverting flows from rivers or canals at times when these flows pose flood risk and recharging the groundwater through suitable artificial recharge structures. This method addresses the issue of groundwater depletion as well as reducing the flood risks. A geo-hydrological analysis in spatial platform using data available in public domain and detailed ground survey, a site was identified in Jiwai Jadid village of Milk Block of Rampur district of Uttar Pradesh, India. A community owned pond was retrofitted with recharge wells and associated infrastructure to draw excess monsoon water from a nearby flood-prone river. The preliminary results show a positive impact on groundwater table and water quality. However, to achieve the full benefit of the method it is required to implement it in larger scale. Ongoing government programs that are focused on livelihood improvement and natural resources management are the best options to scale up such effect in regional scale.


Flood Ground water Ramganga sub-basin Irrigation Aquifer UTFI (Underground taming of flood water for irrigation) 



The authors would like to gratefully acknowledge the supports and contributions from Central Soil Salinity Research Center (Lucknow), Krishi Vigyan Kendra (Rampur) and Rampur District Administration.


  1. Adham MI, Jahan CS, Mazumder QH, Hossain MMA, Haque AM (2010) Study on groundwater recharge potentiality of Barind tract, Rajshahi District, Bangladesh using GIS and remote sensing technique. J Geol Soc India 1:432–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alraggad M, Jasem H (2010) Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) through surface infiltration in the Azraq Basin/Jordan. J Wat Res Prot 2(12):1057–1070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bharati L, Lacombe G, Gurung P, Jayakody P, Hoanh CT, Smakhtin V (2011) The impacts of water infrastructure and climate change on the hydrology of the upper Ganges river basin. International Water Management Institute, Colombo, p 36 (IWMI Research Report 142). doi: 10.5337/2011.210
  4. Brindha K, Pavelic P (2016) Identifying priority watersheds to mitigate flood and drought impacts by novel conjunctive water use management strategies. Env Earth Sci 75(5):1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Census India (2011) The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, Government of India. Accessed 20 Aug 2016
  6. Central Ground Water Board (2007) Manual on Artificial Recharge of Groundwater. Ministry of Water Resources, Government of IndiaGoogle Scholar
  7. Central Ground Water Board (2013) Master plan for artificial recharge to ground water in India. Ministry of Water Resources, Government of IndiaGoogle Scholar
  8. Chenini I, Mammou AB, May ME (2010) Groundwater recharge zone mapping using GIS-based multi-criteria analysis: a case study in central Tunisia (Maknassy basin). Wat Res Manag 24:921–939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chitsazan M, Akhtari Y (2009) A GIS-based DRASTIC model for assessing aquifer vulnerability in Kherran Plain, Khuzestan, Iran. Wat Res Manage 23:1137–1155. doi: 10.1007/s11269-008-9319-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chusanathas S, Uppasit S, Munyou S, Intarasut T, Pholkern K, Srisuk K (2010) Application of GIS techniques for determining suitable areas for managed aquifer recharge in the Lower Ping-Yom River Basin, Thailand. In: Zuber A, Kania J, Kmiecik E (eds) Proceedings of the 38th IAH Congress on Groundwater Quality Sustainability, Krakow, pp 1961–1972Google Scholar
  11. Gontia NK, Patil PY (2012) Assessment of groundwater recharge through rainfall and water harvesting structures in Jamka microwatershed using remote sensing and GIS. J Ind Soc Rem Sens 40(4):639–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jasrotia AS, Kumar R, Saraf AK (2007) Delineation of groundwater recharge sites using integrated remote sensing and GIS in Jammu district, India. Int J Rem Sens 28(22)Google Scholar
  13. Jha MK, Chowdary VM, Chowdhury A (2010) Groundwater assessment in Salboni Block, West Bengal (India) using remote sensing, geographical information system and multi-criteria decision analysis techniques. Hydrogeol J 18(7):1713–1728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kaledhonkar MJ, Singh OP, Ambast SK, Tyagi NK, Tyagi KC (2003) Artificial groundwater recharge through recharge tube wells: a case study. IE (I) J–AG 84:28–32Google Scholar
  15. Kumar B, Kumar U (2011) Ground water recharge zonation mapping and modeling using Geomatics techniques. Int J Environ Sci 1(7):1671Google Scholar
  16. Kumar GM, Agarwal AK, Bali R (2008) Delineation of potential sites for water harvesting structures using remote sensing and GIS. J Ind Soc Rem Sens 36:323–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kumari R, Sharma B, Singh R, Singh RM, Tewari RK (2014) Estimation of groundwater recharge using well recharging unit in Parasai-Sindh watershed of SAT region of India. Ind J Ecol 41(2):252–256Google Scholar
  18. MacDonald AM, Bonsor HC, Taylor R et al (2015) Groundwater resources in the Indo-Gangetic basin: resilience to climate change and abstraction. British Geological Survey, Nottingham, Open Report OR/15/047, p 63Google Scholar
  19. Mallick J, Singh CK, Al-Wadi H, Ahmed M, Rahman A, Shashtri S, Mukherjee S (2015) Geospatial and geostatistical approach for groundwater potential zone delineation. Hydrol Process 29:395–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Murray J, Mcdaniel PA (2003) Development of a GIS database for ground-water recharge assessment of the Palouse Basin. Soil Sci 168(11):759–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. National Disaster Management Authority (2016) Accessed 20 Aug 2016
  22. Pavelic P, Brindha K, Amarnath G, Eriyagama N, Muthuwatta L, Smakhtin V, Gangopadhyay PK, Malik RPS, Mishra A, Sharma BR, Hanjra MA, Reddy RV, Mishra VK, Verma CL, Kant L (2015) Controlling floods and droughts through underground storage: from concept to pilot implementation in the Ganges river basin. International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Colombo, p 33 (IWMI Research Report 165). doi: 10.5337/2016.200
  23. Pavelic P, Srisuk K, Saraphirom P, Nadee S, Pholkern K, Chusanathas S, Munyou S, Tangsutthinon T, Intarasut T, Smakhtin V (2012) Balancing-out floods and droughts: opportunities to utilize floodwater harvesting and groundwater storage for agricultural development in Thailand. J Hydrol 470–471:55–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Piscopo G (2001) Groundwater vulnerability map explanatory notes: castlereagh catchment. NSW Department of Land and Water Conservation, ParramattaGoogle Scholar
  25. Rajmohan N, Prathapar SA (2013) Hydrogeology of the Eastern Ganges Basin: an overview. International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Colombo, p 42 (IWMI Working Paper 157). doi: 10.5337/2013.216
  26. Russo TA, Fisher AT, Lockwood BS (2014) Assessment of managed aquifer recharge site suitability using a GIS and modeling. Ground Water. National Ground Water Association. doi: 10.1111/gwat.12213. (
  27. Samson S, Elangovan K (2015) Delineation of groundwater recharge potential zones in Namakkal District, Tamilnadu, India using remote sensing and GIS. J Ind Soc Rem Sens 43(4):769–778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Saraf AK, Choudhury PR (1998) Integrated remote sensing and GIS for groundwater exploration and identification of artificial recharge sites. Int J Rem Sens 19(10):1825–1841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Shankar MNR, Mohan G (2005) A GIS based hydrogeomorphic approach for identification of site-specific artificial-recharge techniques in the Deccan Volcanic Province. J Earth Syst Sci 114(5):505–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Singh P, Thakur J, Singh UC (2013) Morphometric analysis of Morar River Basin, Madhya Pradesh, India, using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Environ Earth Sci 68:1967–1977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Smith AJ, Pollock DW (2011) Assessment of managed aquifer recharge potential using ensembles of local models. Ground Water. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6584.2011.00808.x
  32. State Disaster Management Authority (2016) Disaster Management Department, Govt. of Uttar Pradesh. Accessed 20 Aug 2016
  33. Tare V, Bose P, Roy G (2015) Ganga River Basin Management Plan, Consortium of 7 Indian Institute of Technology (IITs). Accessed 20 Aug 2016
  34. The Associated Chambers of Commerce & Industry of India (2016) Accessed 20 Aug 2016
  35. United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (2015) Accessed 20 Aug 2016
  36. Verghese BG (1993) Harnessing Himalayan rivers: regional cooperation in South Asia. In: Iyer RR (ed), Konark Publishers, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  37. Yeh HF, Lee CH, Hsu KC, Chang PH (2009) GIS for the assessment of the groundwater recharge potential zone. Environ Geol 58:185–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Prasun K. Gangopadhyay
    • 1
    Email author
  • Bharat R. Sharma
    • 1
  • Paul Pavelic
    • 2
  1. 1.International Water Management Institute (IWMI)New DelhiIndia
  2. 2.International Water Management Institute (IWMI), c/o National Agriculture and Forestry Research Institute (NAFRI)Xaythany District, VientianeLao PDR

Personalised recommendations